European law and EU law in particular are now more relevant than ever. At King's you will be studying for an LLM in European Law at one of the most exciting times in EU history. Our faculty is at the cutting-edge of current development while benefitting from a long-standing tradition of expertise in the field. All of which gives our students the most rounded view of European Law possible.
At King's you will not only be taught in a range of areas of EU law, you will also be part of an EU law community, built around the Centre of European Law, which was set up as far back as 1975. During your time here you will meet excellent teachers and fellow students but also European judges and Advocates General, EU officials, leading barristers, and many others with a keen interest in EU law.
The King's LLM in European Law is unrivalled. Our alumni have gone on to work for some of the most prestigious European institutions and legal firms. We are passionate about giving our students access to the best opportunities. We are passionate about Europe. And above all we are passionate about European law.
Alongside our eminent team of King's academics teaching on the pathway, such as Professors Andrea Biondi and Alexander Türk, a strong team of visiting professors and practitioners also contribute to the European Law community:
You need to study full- or half-modules (see module list below) worth 180 credits.
Each module is worth 40 credits (with half modules worth 20 credits). You will need to select modules of your choice that adds up to 120 credits in total.
To achieve the additional 60 credits you need to choose between:
The modules listed below are those related specifically to the LLM in European Law pathway. The general Master of Laws entry lists all available LLM modules.
In the first and second semester you study your selection of taught modules (half and full). These are in most cases assessed in the third semester (May/June) by written examination, or in some cases y the submission of an assessed essay.
Weekly two-hour seminar.
Indicative/suggested reading: Townley, Article 81 EC and Public Policy (2009) Hart Publishing,Oxford.
Most lawyers and competition authorities agree that the sole goal of Articles 101 and 102 TFEU is, and should be, consumer welfare; yet, many EU Courtjudgments suggest that other public policy goals are also relevant. Reflecting Dr Townley's book on the subject, the module considers the arguments for and against the incorporation of public policy goals (and why this matters to the outcome of cases); the state of the existing case law; and how public policy goals should best be incorporated in Article 101 TFEU, if they are relevant there.
The module is taught through a series of two-hour seminars, given by Chris Townley. There is a high degree of student participation in the classes. The module outline provides an array of references for further reading as well as sample questions for us all to ponder before each class. Students can also submit two essays which Chris will mark, grade and return with comments on how they might be improved. This should prove particularly useful for those not used to being examined in the UK system.
It is vital that students read in depth and understand the text and cases set as part of the seminar reading. This is an advanced competition law module, which is ideal for anyone with a good knowledge of European competition law, or those who plan to take one of the other competition law modules during their LLM, please see below for links to these modules.
A 2-hour examination will be set, requiring the student to answer 2 questions. The examination is closed-book. There will be ample opportunity to answer exam-style questions throughout the course.
EU administrative law has always been an integral part of the law of the European Union, but has only recently attracted greater attention by academics. Its significance is not only demonstrated by the large number of acts which are adopted every year in this area at European level (some 3,000), but also by the content of those acts (risk regulation through the approval of the release of genetically modified organisms and approval of medicinal products, market regulation through antitrust decisions imposing considerable fines on undertakings, etc). EU administrative law also involves a wide variety of actors (European Commission, national administrations, EU agencies, networks, private bodies) and forms (traditional legal instruments, but also a wide range of ‘soft’ law).
The aim of this module is to introduce you to the principles of administrative law and policy of the European Union. The module discusses the foundations of EU administrative law, its constitutional framework, its modes of delivery (comitology, agencies, open method of co-ordination, social partner agreements), its procedures (centralised and decentralised), the general principles of law which it has to observe (legal certainty and legitimate expectations, equality, proportionality, the precautionary principle, transparency), and the supervision of EU administrative action (political supervision and judicial review).
EU public procurement law has emerged as a major area of practice for EU lawyers, bolstered by the increased use of PFI contracts, the introduction of new enforcement procedures in 2009 and a growing volume of cases before the European and Member State courts. This module offers a comprehensive grounding in the EU regime. It covers:
No previous knowledge of the subject is required.
The EU regulation of public undertakings and EU state aid law are increasingly important parts of EU competition law. The case law at national and European levels is growing in both number and importance, particularly of late. The reasons for this increasing focus on public intervention in the economy are numerous and varied but they primarily relate to the impact of such intervention on the completion of the internal market and the current liberalization and privatisation processes. The module focuses on the relevant provisions of the Treaty, most notably Articles 86, 87 and 88; analysing them (and the resulting case law/ decisions) through various legal, political and economic prisms. For more details please see the module outline at the bottom of this page. No previous knowledge of the subject is required.
The module is taught in seminars; you are encouraged to actively engage with the issues being addressed.
The aim of the module is to contribute to the understanding of domestic and European company law. It comprises an analysis of legislative measures of EU law, a comparative analysis of domestic laws and an evaluation of economic theory relating to company law and financial market regulation. The first part of the module will (very briefly) give an overview of basic principles of EU law, in particular the law making process, the nature and effect of the different legal instruments, and the functioning of the internal market. At a later point, an in-depth analysis of the right of establishment and the free movement of companies will be conducted.
The remainder of the module will assess the degree of harmonisation achieved on the national level, taking into consideration the directives, regulations, conventions and other instruments of harmonisation which provide the core of EU company law and securities regulation. It will also compare the strategies developed by the national laws in dealing with certain policy issues common to all legal systems (e.g., capital adequacy, agency problems in the firm, rights of stakeholders and shareholders, neutrality and defensive measures in corporate control transactions, corporate finance, market integrity and transparency). The comparative analysis will encompass English, and German law, as well as the law of the United States.
The EU constitutes an important and complex level of governance that requires its own constitutional arrangements. This module looks at the very political and legal nature of the EU, which is neither a State nor an international organization, and traces the political and legal development of the EU. It studies the EU institutions, the processes through which they develop policies and make law, and the principles which govern such law-making. The module further analyses the nature of the EU’s competencies, and the relationship between EU law and the domestic laws of the Member States.
Indicative/suggested reading: Mark W. Janis, Richard S. Kay and Anthony W. Bradley, European Human Rights Law, Text and Materials, 3rd ed. (OUP, 2008), and Francis G. Jacobs, The Sovereignty of Law, The European Way, (Cambridge, 2007).
This module focuses on the interaction between the EU, the EHCR and the national systems of human rights in Europe. While the success of human rights was evident in the last 50 years, new questions arise as to the possibility of institutional and substantive conflicts of human rights; is there an ultimate authority on matters of rights in Europe? Do we have a set of standards or are we still searching for the most appropriate balance between human rights and other interests?
European Labour Law is divided into six parts.
Part One examines the historical development and evolution of European Labour Law, as well as its economic and social purposes.
Part Two examines the wider international human rights context within which European Labour Law operates, including in particular the legal instruments of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Council of Europe.
Part Three examines the institutional competences and framework for the making of European Labour Law, and examines the role of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the development of the discipline. Consideration is also given to different ways of developing standards at EU level, by way of regulatory legislation and collective bargaining.Thereafter, European Labour Law examines selected areas of substantive law dealing with worker protection.
In Part Four these include areas dealing with the position of so-called atypical workers (agency, fixed term and part time workers); working conditions (including working time and the protection of posted workers); and job security (including transfer of undertakings, redundancy and insolvency).
In Part Five the focus turns to collective matters and the duty of the employer to inform and consult, including European Works Councils.
Part Six deals with recent judicial decisions relating to trade union rights and considers their implications for European Labour Law as a whole.
In addition to the foregoing, time will be devoted to assessing future prospects in light of the current crisis in the Eurozone. Parts One – Three are dealt with in Semester One, while parts Four – Six are dealt with in Semester Two. Two – four classes are devoted to each part.
The aim of the module is to teach the basic provisions of EU competition law; to study the law in its economic and market context; and to consider particular business phenomena - distribution agreements, licences of intellectual property rights, cartels, joint ventures etc. - against the backdrop of the EU Treaty generally and Articles 101 and 102 and the EU Merger Regulation in particular. No previous knowledge of the subject is required.
Throughout the academic year there will be a series of tutorials, given by David Bailey, which follow the course of seminars given by Richard Whish. The tutorials are intended to assist your understanding of the subject in general and its practical application to problem questions in particular. A separate tutorials handout will be provided.
The teachers of this module expect a high degree of participation by all students. It is not intended, in general, to provide lectures except where, for particular reasons, it may be helpful to do so. At each seminar, discussion will be encouraged and expected. You are required to have prepared answers to the questions asked at the end of each seminar handout.
The EU is based on the rule of law and the European integration process has been characterized as ‘integration through law’. At the heart of the EU legal system are the EU’s judicial institutions, in particular the Court of Justice. On the basis of a few EU Treaty provisions the Court has fashioned a comprehensive and dynamic system of judicial protection. This module studies that system by analysing its two essential components.
It first concentrates on the application and enforcement of EU law in the Member States. In that context the module analyses the concepts of direct effect and Member State liability; the preliminary rulings system; and enforcement actions by the Commission. The second component consists of judical review of EU acts, where you study both actions for annulment and the non-contractual liability of the EU. This module has a strong practical orientation, to make you familiar with the system of EU judicial protection, so as to enable you to use EU remedies in practice.
The European Union's growing role in criminal justice, public order and national security has recently been confirmed by the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm Programme. The EU is engaged in a wide range of policy initiatives in these related fields and is reshaping the Europe security landscape in the process.
This module examines the constitutional and institutional framework of EU justice & home affairs and the action taken by the EU in this field. It guides you through a critical examination of EU law and policy in the fields of criminal justice, counter-terrorism, immigration & asylum and policing & public order. In addition to examining the role of EU law in these fields the module also considers the relationships between the EU's internal and external activities, and between public agencies and the private sector, in security matters. Case studies will focus on the European Arrest Warrant, counter-terrorist finance, and the proposed European Public Prosecutor.
Applications must be made online using King's online application portal. Applications may be submitted from 1 October 2012.
At the start of the semester you will have the opportunity to attend taster lectures and to speak to module leaders before you make a decision on whether to do a specialist or tailored LLM.
Please see the LLM FAQ's pdf document for further information on the LLM application process.
Please see the LLM FAQ's pdf document for further information on how to complete your application.
LLM student: 2011-12
I chose King’s because of its international reputation, in particular in EU Law, and because of its location, in the heart of a city as vibrant as London. My experience has not disappointed me; the teaching staff is brilliant, all lecturers are leading experts in their respective area. The classes are extremely stimulating, and allow for discussion and exchange of ideas; many involve the intervention of equally brilliant guests from Chambers or the Commission for instance, who provide great practical insight into the topic.
At King’s, I have had the unique opportunity to study State Aid, which in the current context of the aftermath of the crisis was particularly interesting. I also took part in the European Law Moot Competition, which enabled me to get “hands on” experience of EU law, and work as a team. We made it to the Regional Final, and pleaded in Lucerne, Switzerland, where we also had the wonderful opportunity to meet teams and judges from all over Europe.
Finally, King’s has long-standing relationships with the biggest law firms, which organise plenty of events for students to meet future employers. The alumni network is also extremely useful, with many former students recruiting interns or stagiaires within the current year. I would really recommend King’s to anyone looking for both academic excellence and a life experience.
LLM student: 2011-12
For me, choosing King’s College London was always an interesting option, as I had the opportunity to participate in one of the innumerous exchange programmes King’s offers to its students. Nevertheless, the prestige promised by the collaborative partnership between King’s and my home law school proved true when I immersed myself into its academically stimulating and particularly student supportive environment.
King’s provides the great opportunity to decide between a general or a specialist LLM and both seemed highly attractive to me. At first, with regard to the range of interesting and unique modules I tended towards a tailored LLM, but then the high quality of academic staff in the European Law LLM, their expertise and experience which is incorporated in modules covering very specialized areas of EU law attracted me more. Now it seems to me that precisely King’s is an outstanding place to study EU law as it centres an international mix of graduates, teachers and professionals all keen on and animated by EU law which is combined with the excellent research, the effective professional networking and the distinguished programmes conducted by the Centre of European Law.
Moreover, I had the life time experience to be part of a team that represented King’s in the European Law Moot Competition. During this project, I experienced the emphasis on profound research at King’s and besides being involved in personal discussions with leading researchers within various areas of European law I received the valuable professional input of what the skills of a future lawyer will be.
No doubt that I have gained a lot of confidence as a young academic by studying at King’s due to the way I has been appreciated and challenged in relation to my legal knowledge and my intellectual abilities.