European Law




Part Time, Full Time

| Admissions status: Open
Renowned as a true leader in postgraduate study. Our students play a key role in our success through direct participation in debates and the exchange of ideas among the academic community. Our Centre for European Law is a fulcrum for applied learning, attracting notable experts, and our academics and visiting lecturers are all well respected in the field and you will see first-hand how European and EU law takes shape.

  • A comprehensive and specialised pathway, covering more or less all significant areas of EU law, with a long tradition of teaching excellence.
  • Strong academic base; a highly reputed mix of dedicated full-time King's academics and distinguished professionals who all contribute to the extensive module offering as part of this pathway.
  • Linked to the Centre of European Law at King's, whose past directors include Professor A G Chloros, a Judge of the Court of Justice of the European Communities and the former Advocate General of the European Court of Justice, Sir Francis Jacobs, who is now a professor at King's.
  • New exciting scholarship offerings for our LLM programme for entry 2015: The Yeoh Tiong Lay Scholarship Programme, The Bosco Tso and Emily Ng Scholarship Programme and the Nigerian Law Scholars Fund. Please note that the new Norman Spink Scholarship Fund has recently been announced for 2015 entry. For more information, please see our Law Scholarship information page.
  • For UK/EU applicants, please note our King's Master's Support Scheme 2015-16 (deadline for application 29 May 2015), exclusively aimed at widening access to PG study, where up to 273 new awards of £10,000 will be available to students looking to pursue master’s study in 2015. For more information on this scheme and other available King's PGT funding, please visit our funding webpages
  • For more information about the LLM European Law community at King's, have a look at our European Law LLM brochure (pdf).
Student destinations
In a competitive world we can give you the competitive edge to take your career to the next level. That’s why you’ll find our LLM programme is supplemented by opportunities to develop your skills and professional networks. The result is that students are presented with a wide range of employment destinations when they leave; from positions at the European Central Bank, European Commission and UN to commercial roles as investment bank analysts, tax or public affairs advisers, as well as careers in the legal profession; accountancy; management consultancy; human rights organisations and other voluntary bodies; academia.
Programme leader/s
Professor Takis Tridimas
Law Society CPD points
Awarding Institution
King's College London
Credit value (UK/ECTS equivalent)
UK 180/ECTS 90
One year FT, two years to four years PT, September to September.
Strand Campus.
Year of entry 2016
Offered by
The Dickson Poon School of Law
Closing date
The deadline for applications is 01 April 2016 for 2016 entry. Prior to this date all applications will be given equal consideration and considered on their individual merits. After this date and up to 01 July 2016 applications will be considered subject to the availability of places, thus we encourage you to submit your application as soon as possible. Please note that funding deadlines may be earlier.
360 overall for the LLM (FT and PT)
PT Home: £TBC (2016)
PT Overseas: £TBC (2016)
FT Home: £TBC (2016)
FT Overseas: £TBC (2016)
Contact information
Admissions Office
tel: +44 (0) 20 7848 2097 / 2711
fax: +44 (0) 20 7848 7200


This programme allows you to deepen or to broaden your knowledge of law as an academic subject and assists your professional development by enhancing your problem-solving skills in a transnational context. Designed to maximise students' intellectual potential, it also keeps you grounded by drawing on the real world experiences of staff and other practitioners. The LLM offers a sharpened focus on our key areas of excellence and a commitment to offer a premier programme and a world class student experience. Aimed at recent law graduates (or graduates of joint degrees with a significant law content) as well as established legal professionals who may have graduated a number of years ago, the programme is rigorous and demanding and requires serious commitment.


Download the LLM European Law brochure (pdf)

European law and EU law in particular are now more relevant than ever. At King's you will be studying for an LLM in European Law at one of the most exciting times in EU history. Our faculty is at the cutting-edge of current development while benefitting from a long-standing tradition of expertise in the field. All of which gives our students the most rounded view of European Law possible.

At King's you will not only be taught in a range of areas of EU law, you will also be part of an EU law community, built around the Centre of European Law, which was set up as far back as 1975. During your time here you will meet excellent teachers and fellow students but also European judges and Advocates General, EU officials, leading barristers, and many others with a keen interest in EU law.

The King's LLM in European Law is unrivalled. Our alumni have gone on to work for some of the most prestigious European institutions and legal firms. We are passionate about giving our students access to the best opportunities. We are passionate about Europe. And above all we are passionate about European law.

Alongside our eminent team of King's academics teaching on the pathway, such as Professors Andrea Biondi and Alexander Türk, a strong team of visiting professors and practitioners also contribute to the European Law community:

Core programme content

You may choose to study one of our six specialist LLMs or create a unique programme tailored to your areas of interest. At the start of the semester you will have the opportunity to attend taster lectures and to speak to module leaders before you make a decision on whether to undertake a specialist or tailored LLM.

For all options, you will need to study full or half-modules that add up to a total of 180 credits. A list of all modules is shown below. Each module is worth 40 credits (with half modules worth 20 credits). You will need to select modules of your choice that add up to 120 credits in total.

To achieve the additional 60 credits you need to choose between guided LLM research options, which include a longer dissertation or shorter research essay requirement.

The modules listed below are those related specifically to the LLM in European Law pathway. The general Master of Laws entry lists all available LLM modules.


In the first and second semester you study your selection of taught modules (half and full). These are in most cases assessed in the third semester (May/June) by written examination, or in some cases by the submission of an assessed essay. Please see further details for each individual module in the module list below.

Dissertation or research essays must be submitted in September, after the May/June examinations.

More information on typical programme modules.
NB it cannot be guaranteed that all modules are offered in any particular academic year.

Teaching staff: Professor Alexander Türk
Module code: 7FFLA015
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Teaching pattern: Two-hour seminar.

Indicative/suggested reading: H. Hofmann, A. Türk, The Development of Integrated Administration in the EU and its Consequences, 2007 13(2) European Law Journal 253-271.

Assessment:  written examination/s 
Three-hour exam.

Module description

EU administrative law has always been an integral part of the law of the European Union, but has only recently attracted greater attention by academics. Its significance is not only demonstrated by the large number of acts which are adopted every year in this area at European level (some 3,000), but also by the content of those acts (risk regulation through the approval of the release of genetically modified organisms and approval of medicinal products, market regulation through antitrust decisions imposing considerable fines on undertakings, etc). EU administrative law also involves a wide variety of actors (European Commission, national administrations, EU agencies, networks, private bodies) and forms (traditional legal instruments, but also a wide range of ‘soft’ law).

The aim of this module is to introduce you to the principles of administrative law and policy of the European Union. The module discusses the foundations of EU administrative law, its constitutional framework, its modes of delivery (comitology, agencies, open method of co-ordination, social partner agreements), its procedures (centralised and decentralised), the general principles of law which it has to observe (legal certainty and legitimate expectations, equality, proportionality, the precautionary principle, transparency), and the supervision of EU administrative action (political supervision and judicial review).

Teaching staff: Professor Alan Dashwood
Module code: 7FFLA507
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 20
Semester:  Semester 2 (spring) 
Teaching pattern: 

Two-hour seminar.

Assessment:  written examination/s 
Two-hour exam.

Module description

The EU’s external policies are ever more sophisticated and wide-ranging, and the EU is a very active international actor. This module concentrates on studying the legal foundations of the EU’s external action. It looks at the scope and nature of the EU’s external competences, in particular treaty-making powers and the relationship between international and EU law. It also focuses on a couple of case-studies of major EU external policies, namely the EU’s common commercial policy and its common foreign and security policy. Those case-studies will exemplify the interaction between the many facets that shape the EU’s external relations. The module aims to give you a thorough grounding in what is a very dynamic subject.

Teaching staff: Professor Takis Tridimas and Professor Alexander Türk
Module code: 7FFLA077
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 20
Semester:  Semester 2 (spring) 
Assessment:  written examination/s 

This module explores the new financial regulatory architecture of the European Union and its economic governance. This is an area, in which the EU has only recently asserted more centralised control, mainly due to the financial problems of financial institutions and Member States following the recent financial crisis. The course will discuss the evolution of financial harmonisation law in the Union, the new institutional architecture of the European Supervisory Authorities, as well as the regulatory and enforcement tools at their disposal.

In addition, the module will discuss the efforts of the European Union to strengthen its economic governance, in particular within the Eurozone. It will analyse the regulatory arrangements and institutional structures within and outside EU law (Banking Union, European Financial Compact, European Stability Mechanism). Students will discuss the constitutional constraints of the system, its practical operation, and the policy choices and challenges behind the new regulatory regime.

This module is of considerable practical relevance to practising lawyers in the financial services industry, but also for those who are interested in the constitutional and administrative law problems which the new regulatory regime raises.
Teaching staff: Sheila Tormey (Fasken Martineau LLP)
Module code: 7FFLA579
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 20
Semester:  Semester 1 (autumn) 
Teaching pattern: The module is taught in weekly two-hour seminars.

There will be reading each week from leading authors Sue Arrowsmith and Peter Trepte, as well as variety of journal articles, particularly those published in the Public Procurement Law Review. In addition, reading will include ECJ and UK case law and European Commission guidance.

Assessment:  written examination/s 
Two-hour exam.

Module description

EU public procurement law has emerged as a major area of practice for EU lawyers, bolstered by the increased use of PFI contracts, the introduction of new enforcement procedures in 2009 and a growing volume of cases before the European and Member State courts. This module offers a comprehensive grounding in the EU regime. It covers:

  • the policy objectives of the EU public procurement law regime and its foundations in the TFEU;
  • the substantive rules relating to entities and contracts covered, award procedures, selection of bidders and contract award criteria;
  • information disclosure requirements, in particular the European courts’ evolving case law and the relationship with the general principle of transparency and Freedom of Information laws;
  • the use of public procurement to further social, policy and environmental objectives; and
  • enforcement mechanisms and practice throughout the EU, including the new Remedies Directive and Article 258 TFEU infraction proceedings.

No previous knowledge of the subject is required.

Teaching staff: Professor Andrea Biondi, Robin Griffith (ex Clifford Chance) & Dr José Luis Buendía Sierra (Garrigues)
Module code: 7FFLA011
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Teaching pattern: Weekly two-hour seminar.

Indicative/suggested reading: E. Syczcack, State Aid Handbook, London, Elgar, 2011.

Assessment:  written examination/s 
Three-hour exam.

Module description

The EU regulation of public undertakings and EU state aid law are increasingly important parts of EU competition law. The case law at national and European levels is growing in both number and importance, particularly of late. The reasons for this increasing focus on public intervention in the economy are numerous and varied but they primarily relate to the impact of such intervention on the completion of the internal market and the current liberalization and privatisation processes. The module focuses on the relevant provisions of the Treaty, most notably Articles 86, 87 and 88; analysing them (and the resulting case law/ decisions) through various legal, political and economic prisms. For more details please see the module outline at the bottom of this page. No previous knowledge of the subject is required.

The module is taught in seminars; you are encouraged to actively engage with the issues being addressed.

Teaching staff: Professor Jonathan Schwarz and Kelly Stricklin-Coutinho
Module code: 7FFLA069
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Assessment:  written examination/s 
Three-hour exam.

Module description

This module examines the impact of EU law on taxation in the Member States. It examines the sources of EU law and its conceptual framework; considers harmonisation measures that have impact on taxation, including the direct tax directives designed to eliminate cross-border distortions and the application of the State Aid rules to taxation; and concludes by examining the impact of the Treaty freedoms of movement on the Member States' direct taxation rules as revealed through the Courts' case law.
Teaching staff: Professor Andrea Biondi
Module code: 7FFLA018
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Teaching pattern: Weekly two-hour seminar.

Indicative/suggested reading: Barnard, The Substantive Law of the EU, OUP, 2010.

Assessment:  written examination/s 
Three-hour exam.

Module description

The concept of a common market involves the elimination of all obstacles to intra-community trade in order to merge the national markets into a single market bringing about conditions as close as possible to those of a genuine internal market’ (Schul, 1982). The module, by focusing on the development and application of the principle of free movement, assesses whether those objectives have been fully achieved. The structure is firmly grounded on the four fundamental freedoms: goods, persons, services and capital. Each of the freedoms is thoroughly analysed with reference to the case law of the European Court of Justice and to relevant legislation. ‘Exemplary’ areas such as financial services, food law or the regulation of monopolies are also included. Particular attention is devoted to the debate on whether the same criteria and principles may be applied to the whole of the internal market and to the degree of convergence of the economic freedoms in EU law.
Teaching staff: Professor Keith Ewing
Module code: 7FFLA019
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Assessment:  written examination/s 
Three-hour exam.

Module description

European Labour Law is divided into six parts.

Part One examines the historical development and evolution of European Labour Law, as well as its economic and social purposes.

Part Two examines the wider international human rights context within which European Labour Law operates, including in particular the legal instruments of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Council of Europe.

Part Three examines the institutional competences and framework for the making of European Labour Law, and examines the role of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the development of the discipline. Consideration is also given to different ways of developing standards at EU level, by way of regulatory legislation and collective bargaining.Thereafter, European Labour Law examines selected areas of substantive law dealing with worker protection.

In Part Four these include areas dealing with the position of so-called atypical workers (agency, fixed term and part time workers); working conditions (including working time and the protection of posted workers); and job security (including transfer of undertakings, redundancy and insolvency).

In Part Five the focus turns to collective matters and the duty of the employer to inform and consult, including European Works Councils.

Part Six deals with recent judicial decisions relating to trade union rights and considers their implications for European Labour Law as a whole.

In addition to the foregoing, time will be devoted to assessing future prospects in light of the current crisis in the Eurozone. Parts One – Three are dealt with in Semester One, while parts Four – Six are dealt with in Semester Two. Two – four classes are devoted to each part.

Teaching staff: David Bailey
Module code: 7FFLA016
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Teaching pattern: Weekly two-hour seminars; fortnightly two-hour small-group tutorials.

Indicative/suggested reading: Whish and Bailey Competition Law, 7th edition, OUP.

Assessment:  written examination/s 
Three-hour exam.

Module description

The aim of the module is to teach the basic provisions of EU competition law; to study the law in its economic and market context; and to consider particular business phenomena - distribution agreements, licences of intellectual property rights, cartels, joint ventures etc. - against the backdrop of the EU Treaty generally and Articles 101 and 102 and the EU Merger Regulation in particular. No previous knowledge of the subject is required.

Throughout the academic year there will be a series of tutorials, given by David Bailey, which follow the course of seminars given by Richard Whish. The tutorials are intended to assist your understanding of the subject in general and its practical application to problem questions in particular. A separate tutorials handout will be provided.

The teachers of this module expect a high degree of participation by all students. It is not intended, in general, to provide lectures except where, for particular reasons, it may be helpful to do so. At each seminar, discussion will be encouraged and expected. You are required to have prepared answers to the questions asked at the end of each seminar handout.

Teaching staff: Professor Alexander Türk
Module code: 7FFLX008
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Assessment:  coursework 

EU law impacts in a wide variety of ways on almost every aspect of commercial life in the European Union (and often beyond). This module aims at providing students with the opportunity to gain deeper understanding and knowledge of the impact of EU law in commercial transactions and to develop commercially viable solutions to what are often complex legal issues. Students will have to develop an awareness of how EU law can restrict or facilitate such transactions. They are expected to research selected areas of substantial and procedural aspects of EU law and to employ their knowledge in a commercially relevant way. Students will be confronted with different practical scenarios (be it in meetings where they need to negotiate, or by submitted written documents) on various sides of the transaction (be it as Commission officials, representatives of law firms, general counsel of companies and so on).
Teaching staff: Professor Piet Eeckhout & Professor Andrea Biondi
Module code: 7FFLA511
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 20

The EU is based on the rule of law and the European integration process has been characterized as ‘integration through law’. At the heart of the EU legal system are the EU’s judicial institutions, in particular the Court of Justice. On the basis of a few EU Treaty provisions the Court has fashioned a comprehensive and dynamic system of judicial protection. This module studies that system by analysing its two essential components.

It first concentrates on the application and enforcement of EU law in the Member States. In that context the module analyses the concepts of direct effect and Member State liability; the preliminary rulings system; and enforcement actions by the Commission. The second component consists of judical review of EU acts, where you study both actions for annulment and the non-contractual liability of the EU. This module has a strong practical orientation, to make you familiar with the system of EU judicial protection, so as to enable you to use EU remedies in practice.

Teaching staff: Dr Oana Stefan
Module code: 7FFLX009
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Assessment:  coursework 

In the era marked by the internationally notorious WikiLeaks and Snowden affairs, transparency and openness are becoming buzzwords of most of the debates on government legitimacy and accountability. The European Union is no exception, with the principle of transparency having been progressively integrated into the law, first through the decisions of the Court in relation to the right of access to documents and then, after the 1990s, through Treaty amendments and secondary legislation. Currently enshrined in Article 1 TEU and 15 TFEU, the principle consists essentially of various forms of active cooperation and communication between the EU institutions and the public, typically entailing access to information. However, establishing to what extent open government is also good government is not a straightforward question. Thus, lifting the veil of secrecy over various institutional practices is a matter on which consensus is often hard to reach.

This module aims at enabling reflection on open government at the European Union level. It will explore in depth the principle of transparency and the way it has been rendered operational in EU primary, secondary legislation, and case law, as well as in EU institutional practices. At the theoretical level, the focus is on determining the rationale, the content and the boundaries of the principle of transparency. In particular, we will be assessing the highly contested link between the principles of transparency on the one hand and legitimacy and accountability on the other. The module will also look at the contents of the principle of transparency – is it just a passive right of every citizen to have access to information or is it a broader concept, entailing a pro-active institutional duty to ensure that all its actions, as well as the information about these actions, are carried out in an accessible and understandable way? Furthermore, we will be discussing the costs of transparency, and to what extent does this principle interact with other fundamental principles such as respect of private life of individuals or impartiality of justice.

These questions shall be contextualised through an analysis of the degree of openness of different European institutions. We will be covering issues ranging from the refusal to grant access to files held by the European Commission, to the disclosure of information on how various countries vote within the Council, and to the reasons for which a large part of the activity of the Court of Justice of the European Union is still exempted from the application of the principle of transparency. The debates will draw mainly on legal arguments, but also on interdisciplinary sources, in particular on theories coming from sociology, political science, and public administration.

Teaching staff: Professor Andrea Biondi and Elisabetta Righini
Module code: 7FFLX010
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 40
Semester:  Full-year 
Assessment:  coursework;  presentation/s; 

Through the analysis of a case-study, students will apply their knowledge of EU state aid law to develop a hands-on experience of the political, legal, economic and procedural components of EU State aid control. As in moot court, students will have an opportunity to discuss all aspects of the case taking into account the perspective of all the actors involved in the various phases of State aid control, from the conception of the aid measure, to the investigation, to decision-making and judicial review.

The course will be assessed on the basis of oral and written presentations, and students will be required to work proactively and in teams..

Students wishing to take this option will be required to take the EU State Aid course in the first semester or to prove a good working knowledge of this area of EU law.

Teaching staff: 

Robert Hartley

Module code: 7FFLA537
Credit level: 7
Credit value: 20

Value Added Tax is an increasingly important tax in the UK and throughout the EU. Not only does it generate a large amount of revenue for governments, its character as a European tax makes for interesting case law and controversy within domestic systems.

This module considers the nature of VAT as a tax and considers the system of VAT as implemented in the UK. It considers the various elements of the tax and how the tax has developed in response to EU movement and pressure.

As well as gaining a comprehensive understanding of VAT in the UK, the aim of the module is to provide you with the tools to be able to comprehend other systems of VAT in Europe and also to understand why what seems like a simple tax has proved so complicated in the EU.

General entry advice
The basic requirement for admission to the LLM programme is a recognised first degree in law (or a degree with at least 70% law content) of at least upper second class honours standard or an equivalent overseas qualification.
Exceptionally, you may be considered where a comparable academic level has been achieved through other graduate studies and where work or experience has made you a suitable candidate for the LLM.
A pdf download of entry requirements by region is available from the further information tab.

Enhanced criminal conviction check
Occupational Health clearance required?

To apply for graduate study at King's you will need to complete our graduate online application form. Applying online makes applying easier and quicker for you, and means we can receive your application faster and more securely.
King's does not normally accept paper copies of the graduate application form as applications must be made online. However, if you are unable to access the online graduate application form, please contact the relevant admissions/School Office at King's for advice.


Applications must be made online using King's online application portal and an application fee of £30 applies (non-refundable). Applications may be submitted from 1 October 2014.
All applications must be made to the generic Master of Laws (LLM) programme. If accepted, and once you have enrolled onto the LLM programme, you will have the opportunity to choose one of our specialist LLMs. At the start of the semester you will have the opportunity to attend taster lectures and to speak to programme/module leaders before you make a decision on whether to do a specialist or tailored LLM.

Please see the LLM FAQ's pdf document for further information on the LLM application process.


Please see the LLM FAQ's pdf document for further information on how to complete your application.

We have three exciting scholarship opportunities available for the LLM programme, namely The Yeoh Tiong Lay LLM Scholarships, The Bosco Tso and Emily NG Scholarship Programme and the Nigerian Law Scholars Fund. Please also note that the new Norman Spink Scholarship Fund has recently been announced for 2015 entry. For further information about these scholarships and other available funding for the LLM, please visit For UK/EU applicants, please note our King's Master's Support Scheme 2015-16 (deadline for application 29 May 2015), where up to 273 new awards of £10,000 will be available to students looking to pursue master’s study in 2015. These awards are exclusively aimed at widening access to postgraduate study and are joint-funded by the Higher Education Funding Council (HEFCE) and King’s. For more information on this scheme and other available King's funding, please visit

Student profiles

European Law LLM

LLM student: 2011-12

I chose King’s because of its international reputation, in particular in EU Law, and because of its location, in the heart of a city as vibrant as London. My experience has not disappointed me; the teaching staff is brilliant, all lecturers are leading experts in their respective area. The classes are extremely stimulating, and allow for discussion and exchange of ideas; many involve the intervention of equally brilliant guests from Chambers or the Commission for instance, who provide great practical insight into the topic.

At King’s, I have had the unique opportunity to study State Aid, which in the current context of the aftermath of the crisis was particularly interesting. I also took part in the European Law Moot Competition, which enabled me to get “hands on” experience of EU law, and work as a team. We made it to the Regional Final, and pleaded in Lucerne, Switzerland, where we also had the wonderful opportunity to meet teams and judges from all over Europe.

Finally, King’s has long-standing relationships with the biggest law firms, which organise plenty of events for students to meet future employers. The alumni network is also extremely useful, with many former students recruiting interns or stagiaires within the current year. I would really recommend King’s to anyone looking for both academic excellence and a life experience.

European Law LLM

LLM student: 2011-12

For me, choosing King’s College London was always an interesting option, as I had the opportunity to participate in one of the innumerous exchange programmes King’s offers to its students. Nevertheless, the prestige promised by the collaborative partnership between King’s and my home law school proved true when I immersed myself into its academically stimulating and particularly student supportive environment.

King’s provides the great opportunity to decide between a general or a specialist LLM and both seemed highly attractive to me. At first, with regard to the range of interesting and unique modules I tended towards a tailored LLM, but then the high quality of academic staff in the European Law LLM, their expertise and experience which is incorporated in modules covering very specialized areas of EU law attracted me more. Now it seems to me that precisely King’s is an outstanding place to study EU law as it centres an international mix of graduates, teachers and professionals all keen on and animated by EU law which is combined with the excellent research, the effective professional networking and the distinguished programmes conducted by the Centre of European Law.

Moreover, I had the life time experience to be part of a team that represented King’s in the European Law Moot Competition. During this project, I experienced the emphasis on profound research at King’s and besides being involved in personal discussions with leading researchers within various areas of European law I received the valuable professional input of what the skills of a future lawyer will be.

No doubt that I have gained a lot of confidence as a young academic by studying at King’s due to the way I has been appreciated and challenged in relation to my legal knowledge and my intellectual abilities.

Staff profiles

European Law LLM

Professor Takis Tridimas is a leading scholar in the field of European Union law. He is one of the most frequently quoted authors by Advocates General of the European Court of Justice and, on matters of EU law, by English courts. He joined King’s College in September 2013. Before then, he was the Sir John Lubbock Professor of Banking Law at Queen Mary College, University of London. He also served as référendaire (law clerk) to Advocate General Sir Francis Jacobs at the European Court of Justice. He was senior legal adviser to the EU Presidency and Chairman of the Committee set up by the EU Council of Ministers to draft the Treaty of Accession of 2003. He is, or has been, visiting professor in many universities, including the College of Europe, Bruges, Sciences Po, Université Panthéon Assas (Paris II), and the University of Genova. He is a barrister at Matrix Chambers. Professor Tridimas’s interests cover the whole area of EU law and focus specifically on judicial protection, constitutional remedies, comparative constitutionalism, economic and monetary union and banking law