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3 Dimensions of care For Diabetes (3DfD)

Diabetes is a serious and growing problem. Diabetes UK estimates it costs the NHS £1 million per hour, a figure that's steadily increasing. A partnership between King's Health Partners, London Boroughs and community organisations has developed a model that will improve the quality of care for patients, and enable them to manage their conditions effectively.

The key insight here is that people with diabetes can face a complex web of different health and social challenges, which are tackled best when they are tackled together. For example, worries about housing or employment or psychological stress can prevent people managing their condition effectively, and the best treatment programme deals with all of these issues together.

3DfD is a service that fully integrates medical, psychological and social care for people with persistent, poorly controlled diabetes. The overall aim is to improve diabetes control, quality of life and quality in care with associated cost efficiencies. As part of this process, the 3DfD model aims to reduce the number of patients with diabetes presenting as emergencies to A&E and decrease long-term health complications such as kidney dialysis, blindness and amputation. This model has been adopted for its sustainability potential by the Guy’s and St Thomas’ Diabetes Modernisation Initiative.

The service was initially piloted for 18 months from April 2010 to November 2011 in Southwark, funded by the NHS London Regional Innovations Fund, and was successful in significantly reducing patients HbA1c and increasing patient satisfaction. An independent qualitative study carried out by thinkpublic found an extremely high level of satisfaction from the patients with the care they received.The service’s success was recognised by the Quality in Care programme where 3DfD won 3 awards in 2011 for Community initiative of the year, best programme for health inequalities, and best integrated care initiative.

3DfD recently received a further year’s funding from the guy’s and St Thomas’ charity and started its service again in September this year for residents of Southwark and Lambeth. An economic health evaluation is currently being conducted on the service to ascertain whether it is cost-effective as well as being effective.

More about referrals into the 3DfD service 

The 3DfD team

  • Dr Carol Gayle


  • Dr Anne Doherty     MB BCh BAO MRCPsych MMedSc DipCBT   

Anne-DohertyAnne Doherty is a Consultant Liaison Psychiatrist (Locum) at King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust in the 3 Dimensions of Care for Diabetes service (3DfD), providing psychological and psychiatric treatment to people with poorly controlled diabetes and co-morbid psychological/social difficulties.  

She qualified from the National University of Ireland, Galway and completed her basic training on the Mater/UCD Training Scheme, following which she was appointed Special Lecturer in Psychiatry in UCD (University College Dublin) and the Mater Hospital. She completed the Higher Specialist Training Scheme in Psychiatry (Ireland) with a sub-specialism in Liaison Psychiatry. Her research interests are mental disorder in the medical setting and adjustment disorders.


T: 020 3299 x1350 (secretary)


  • Dr Anne Werner, Clinical Research Fellow & ST4 trainee in Liaison Psychiatry   

Anne-Werner-passportAnne Werner is a visiting Clinical Research Fellow from Tuebingen, Germany. She completed her medical training at University of Marburg, Germany, and University College London, and a postgraduate Master’s degree in Medical Education in Bern, Switzerland

Her academic interests are liaison psychiatry, especially the field of diabetes and depression, conversion disorders, and  medical education, with a focus on communication skills.   


T: 020 7848 x5231


  • Laura-Lee Price, Thames Reach Senior Practitioner

Laura-Lee has worked for Thames Reach homeless charity for six years providing floating support for vulnerable clients within the boroughs of Southwark and Greenwich. Her work has involved advocating for clients with welfare benefits, housing, debts, education and training.

This is her second year with the 3DfD team and she is keen to continue providing social support to diabetes patients across Lambeth and Southwark.



  • Debbie Illston, Support Worker

DebbieDebbie worked for eight years as a specialist female worker with young homeless  women in central London. She then became a youth specialist  worker  seconded to a Thames Reach tenancy sustainment team, supporting young people who had been homeless to move in and maintain a tenancy.

She has been with Thames Reach for over five years supporting vulnerable clients within the hostel and supported housing environment. Debbie has recently joined the 3DfD team  and will be using her skills in  the fields of  drug & alcohol, mental health and floating support.



  • Emma Britneff, Research Worker   

Emma-BritneffEmma graduated from the University of Southampton in 2010 with a BSc in Psychology and in December 2010 she joined the Diabetes Research group at King’s, working on the South London Diabetes study (SOUL-D) as a research assistant/administrator. In 2011 she started a Masters in Mental Health at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience KCL, studying alongside her new role of senior research administrator for SOUL-D. She completed her Masters dissertation on the use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with type 2 diabetes, supervised by Dr. WinkleyAfter completion of her Masters, Emma joined the 3DfD team in her current position as a research worker. 


T: 020 7848 x5669 

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