HIV Currently, our research is focused on studying the immune response to carbohydrate antigens on HIV-1 and bacteria. The HIV envelope glycoprotein, gp120, is covered in a dense array of host-derived N-linked glycans and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the sugars on the surface of HIV are the target for a number of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). We are interested in understanding how bnAbs against the glycans on HIV evolve in vivo so that this can be applied to the design of an HIV vaccine that would target the carbohydrate structures on HIV. Although there are currently no successful carbohydrate vaccines that protect against viral infection there are a number of successful carbohydrate vaccines that protect against bacterial infection. These vaccines elicit protective antibodies specific for the carbohydrate coat of pathogenic bacteria and we are interested in using these antibodies to learn more about antibody recognition of glycans.