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Developing capacity

International social care workers: Profile, motivations, experiences and future expectations

Purpose

This Department of Health (DH) commissioned project aims to add to the empirical evidence base about the issues facing employers and recruits. 

Research team

Shereen Hussein, SCWRU
Jill Manthorpe, SCWRU
Martin Stevens, SCWRU
Stephen Martineau, SCWRU

Funding

Department of Health: Policy Research Programme, Social Care Workforce Research Initiative. 

Background

This study aims to take forward and to build on the various studies that have been undertaken recently on international recruitment in England in social care for adults and in health care (where social care is sometimes included but often not identified as such). The DH itself has been focusing on this subject with a group of policy makers exploring the issues. Many of these contributions were brought together at the Expert Seminar held in 2006 by SCWRU where many of the ideas for this study were canvassed and supported.

Methods

The study is in three phases. Phase 1 involved data collection from policy makers, professional registration bodies, and the main agencies engaged in international recruitment and other employment agencies, to determine the number and characteristics of the international workforce and to identify any recent trends. Phases 2 and 3 are focusing on six adult services departments, and involves interviews of a sample of international workers and their colleagues/managers to facilitate comparison. A sub-study of refugees/asylum seekers working in social care forms part of this phase. Phase 3 involve interviews with human resources personnel and service users and carers to inform understanding of the experiences and effectiveness of international recruitment in terms of workface developments and user outcomes.

Findings

The changes in immigration policies and legislation are likely to have a major impact on the proportions of social care workers migrating to the UK from different countries. The analysis demonstrates the clear potential for refugees and asylum seekers to join and benefit the social care sector in England, with a number of practical barriers highlighted and discussed.

See also

Social Care Workforce Research Initiative page for this project 

Timetable

2007 – 2010

Output

Reports
Hussein, S., Stevens, M. & Manthorpe, J., (2010), 'International Social Care Workers in England: Profile, Motivations, Experiences and Future Expectations. Final Report' [pdf, 1,800 KB], London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2009), 'The Experiences of International Social Care Workers in the UK: Findings from an Online Survey' [pdf 1,368 KB], London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2009), 'International Social Workers in England: their characteristics and country of qualification. A report to the Department of Health', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'International Social Care Workers: Initial Outcomes, Workforce Experiences and Future Expectations. Phase I Interim Report to the Department of Health' [pdf 1,214 KB], London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King’s College London.
Articles

Manthorpe, J., Hussein, S. & Stevens, M. (2012) 'Communication with migrant workers: the perspectives of people using care services in England', Practice, 24(5): 299-314.

Hussein, S., Stevens, M. & Manthorpe, J. (2013) 'Migrants' motivations to work in the care sector: experiences from England within the context of EU enlargement', European Journal of Ageing, 10(2): 101-109.  

Manthorpe, J., Hussein, S., Stevens, M. & Moriarty, J. (2011, online) 'User and carer experiences of international social care workers in England: listening to their accounts of choice and control', Australian Social Work.

Hussein, S., Stevens, M., Manthorpe, J. & Moriarty, J., (2011), 'Change and continuity: a quantitative investigation of trends and characteristics of international social workers in England', British Journal of Social Work, 41(6): 1140-1157. 

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2011, online), 'The experiences of migrant social work and social care practitioners in the UK: findings from an online survey', European Journal of Social Work.

Moriarty, J., Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M. (2011, online) 'International social workers in England: Factors influencing supply and demand', International Social Work.

Stevens, M., Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2011, online), 'Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England: findings from a mixed-methods research project', Ethnicity and Racial Studies.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M. (2011) 'Exploring the potential of refugees and asylum seekers for social care work in England: a qualitative study', Health & Social Care in the Community, 19(5): 468-475.

Hussein, S., Stevens, M. & Manthorpe, J., (2011), 'What drives the recruitment of migrant workers to work in social care in England?', Social Policy & Society, 10(3): 285-298.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2010, online), 'Social care as first work experience in England: a secondary analysis of the profile of a national sample of migrant workers', Health & Social Care in the Community.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2010),'The changing profile of migrant care workers in England: possible workforce and service implications', Generations Review, 20(3).

Manthorpe, J., Hussein, S., Charles, N., Rapaport, P., Stevens, M. & Nagendran, T., (2010, online publication), 'Social care stakeholders' perceptions of the recruitment of international practitioners in the United Kingdom—a qualitative study', European Journal of Social Work.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008, online publication), 'People in places: a qualitative exploration of recruitment agencies' perspectives on the employment of international social workers in the UK', British Journal of Social Work.

Presentations

Hussein, S. (2013) 'The UK immigration policies and the long term care workforce', Centre for Health Service Economics & Organisation, London, 13 June.

Manthorpe, J., (2010), 'Migrant workers in the long-term care provision in England: Implications for users, employers and the wider care workforce' [pdf, 1,695 KB], International Conference on Evidence-based Policy in Long Term Care, London, 10 September.

Hussein, S. & Clarke, C., (2010), 'International social workers in England: Challenges and ways forward' [ppt, 1,340 KB], JSWEC Conference, University of Hertfordshire, 1 July.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'Not so New types of worker: migrant care workers in England within a global care market [Keynote speech]', New Types of Working in Health and Social Care, Second International Conference, London, 21-22 January.

Hussein, S., (2009), 'Emerging findings: motivations, experiences and future plans of international social care workers in England', International Social Care Workers in England: Experiences and Expectations (Expert seminar), London, 9 December.

Hussein, S., (2009), 'International social care workers in England: their profile, motivations, experiences and future expectations', Social Care Workforce Initiative Seminar, London, 17 November.

Stevens, M., Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2009), 'International care workers in England: practices and identities', Gender, Care and Migration Workshop at Open University, Milton Keynes, 11 November.

Stevens, M., (2009), 'Interim findings from the International Recruitment study', New Perspectives on Care, Gender and Migration in Europe, Centre for Citizenship, Identities and Governance at The Open University, Milton Keynes, 11 November.

Manthorpe, J. & Hussein, S., (2009), 'International workers in care homes: myths and realities', Margaret Butterworth Care Home Forum, University College London, 11 November.

Hussein, S., (2009), 'International care workers in England: people and places in an exchangable time', Eighth International Conference of the International Association of Homes and Services for the Ageing, London, 20-22 July.

Manthorpe, J., (2009), 'International social workers', 11th UK Joint Social Work Education Conference with the 3rd UK Social Work Research Conference, University of Hertfordshire, 9 July.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2009), 'International social workers in England: an unknown workforce?', 11th UK Joint Social Work Education Conference with the 3rd UK Social Work Research Conference, University of Hertfordshire, 10 July.

Stevens, M., Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2008), 'Recruiting international social care workers - barriers, advantages and potential sources of discrimination', Inclusion and Exclusion Conference, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 20 November.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'International social care workers: importing new perspectives and challenges', Inclusion and Exclusion Conference, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 20 November.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'International social care workers: people and places in an exchangeable time', Social Care Workforce Research Initiative Seminar, Department of Health, London, 18 November.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'Recruitment of international workers: agency perspectives', Social Care Workforce Research Initiative Seminar, Department of Health, London, 18 November.

Manthorpe, J., Hussein, S. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'Older people's carework: the contribution of international workers ', Annual Conference of the British Society of Gerontology, Bristol, 5 September.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'International social workers: workforce experience and expectations', 10th UK Joint Social Work Education Conference, and 2nd Joint Social Work Research Conference, Homerton College, Cambridge, 11 July.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'International social care workers: people and places in an exchangeable time. Mobility in international labour markets', Leverhulme Programme on Migration and Citizenship, University College London, London, 16 May.

Media

7 April 2010 Interview with Skills for Care & Development. [YouTube] Dr Hussein talks about the migrant component of the social care workforce.

Impact

The recommendations from this project have informed government policy, been used by Skills for Care to produce a DVD aimed at care sector employers, and are informing the current debate on the proposed cap on non-EEA migrants. Some of the methodology and data collection tools have been adopted by a team of researchers from Auckland University (New Zealand). A news article based on the research was published in Community Care, November 2010.

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