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IBSEN: evaluation of the Individual Budgets pilots

Purpose

The Department of Health commissioned a major evaluation of the piloting of Individual Budgets (IBs) from its three social care research units: SCWRU, The Personal Social Services Research Units (PSSRU) at the Universities of Kent, Manchester, and the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), and the Social Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at the University of York.

The key questions addressed by the evaluation were: Do individual budgets offer a better way of supporting people compared to conventional methods of funding, commissioning and delivering services? And, if so, which models of IBs appear to work best for which groups of users? 

Research team

Jill Manthorpe, SCWRU
Martin Stevens, SCWRU
Joan Rapaport, SCWRU
Jess Harris, SCWRU
Martin Knapp, PSSRU, LSE
José-Luis Fernandez, PSSRU, LSE
Ann Netten, PSSRU, University of Kent
Karen Jones PSSRU, University of Kent
David Challis, PSSRU, University of Manchester
Sally Jacobs, PSSRU, University of Manchester
Caroline Glendinning, SPRU, University of York (principal investigator)
Mark Wilberforce, SPRU, University of York
Nicola Moran, SPRU, University of York

Funding

Department of Health

Background

Individual Budgets (IBs) were a key element in the Government’s ambitions for ‘modernizing’ social care in England, being first proposed in 2005. They attempted to bring together the resources to which an individual is eligible from a number of different funding streams from local and national government. The individual can then decide how to spend their resources to achieve the outcomes they want.

IBs were piloted in 13 local authorities up to the end of 2007, with different sites involving different numbers and combinations of user groups. Following the pilots, government commitment to the transformation of social care has placed emphasis on personalisation, among which are personal budgets – a development of individual budgets which built on the pilots’ experiences and the learning from the evaluation.

Methods

The evaluation used multiple methods to examine both the experiences of IB users and the implications for local authority adult social care services and their partner agencies.

A Randomized Comparison Group study involving 1,000 service users across the pilot sites was undertaken. Data derived from assessments and support planning were collected just before the commencement of the IB or at the community care review/assessment for the comparison group. Interviews, using standardised tools were undertaken after six months, after which participants originally allocated to the comparison group have been offered IBs. There was an in-depth examination of a sample of IB users’ experiences, two – three months after being offered a budget.

The evaluation also examined the cost and cost-effectiveness implications of IBs, and the experiences and implications for the local authority as a whole. In all pilot sites the impact on managers and frontline staff was examined through focus groups and time diaries. The evaluation tracked in detail the implementation process in four of the sites, including the involvement of other agencies, and the impact on training and adult safeguarding.

Timetable

February 2006 – September 2008, with funding for active dissemination of the findings in publications and in presentations.

Output

Reports

Glendenning, C., Moran, N., Knapp, M., Fernandez, J.-L., Netten, A., Jones, K., Challis, D., Wilberforce, M., Jacobs, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'The Evaluation of the Individual Budgets Programme: Final Report', London: Department of Health.

Glendinning, C., Moran, N., Knapp, M., Fernandez, J.-L., Netten, A., Jones, K., Challis, D., Wilberforce, M., Jacobs, S., Manthorpe, J. & Stevens, M., (2008), 'Evaluation of the Individual Budgets Programme. Summary Report', London: Department of Health.

Glendinning, C., Challis, D., Fernandez, J.-L., Jacobs, S., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Manthorpe, J., Moran, N., Netten, A., Stevens, M. & Wilberforce, M., (2008), 'The national evaluation of the Individual Budgets Pilot Programme: Experiences and implications for care coordinators and managers. Research Findings', York: Social Policy Research Unit, University of York.

Articles

Wilberforce, M., Jacobs, S., Challis, D., Manthorpe, J., Stevens, M., Jasper, R., Fernandez, J.-L., Glendinning, C., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Moran, N. & Netten, A. (2012, online) 'Revisiting the causes of stress in social work: Sources of job demands, control and support in personalised adult social care', British Journal of Social Work.

Jones, K., Netten, A., Fernandez, J.-L., Knapp, M., Challis, D., Glendinning, C., Jacobs, S., Manthorpe, J., Moran, N., Stevens, M. & Wilberforce, M. (2012) 'The impact of individual budgets on the targeting of support: findings from a national evaluation of pilot projects in England', Public Money & Management, 32(6): 417-424.

Moran, N., Glendinning, C., Wilberforce, M., Stevens, M., Netten, A., Jones, K., Manthorpe, J., Knapp, M., Fernandez, J.-L., Challis, D. and Jacobs, S. (2012, online) 'Older people's experiences of cash-for-care schemes: evidence from the English Individual Budget pilot projects', Ageing & Society.

Jacobs, S., Abell, J., Stevens, M., Wilberforce, M., Challis, D., Manthorpe, J., Fernandez, J.-L., Glendinning, C., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Moran, N. & Netten, A., (2011, online), 'The personalization of care services and the early impact on staff activity patterns', Journal of Social Work.

Moran, N., Glendinning, C., Stevens, M., Manthorpe, J., Jacobs, S., Wilberforce, M., Knapp, M., Challis, D., Fernandez, J.-L., Jones, K. & Netten, A. (2011) 'Joining up government by integrating funding streams? The experiences of the Individual Budget pilot projects for older and disabled people in England', International Journal of Public Administration, 34(4): 232-243.

Netten, A., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Fernandez, J.-L., Challis, D., Glendinning, C., Jacobs, S., Manthorpe, J., Moran, N., Stevens, M. & Wilberforce, M. (2011, online) 'Personalisation through Individual Budgets: Does it work and for whom?', British Journal of Social Work.

Stevens, M., Glendinning, C., Jacobs, S., Moran, N., Challis, D., Manthorpe, J., Fernandez, J.-L., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Netten, A. & Wilberforce, M. (2011) 'Assessing the role of increasing choice in English social care services', Journal of Social Policy, 40(2): 257-274. 

Wilberforce, M., Glendinning, C., Challis, D., Fernandez, J.-L., Jacobs, S., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Manthorpe, J., Moran, N., Netten, A. & Stevens, M. (2011) 'Implementing consumer choice in long-term care: the impact of Individual Budgets on social care providers in England', Social Policy & Administration, 45(5): 593-612.

Glendinning, C., Moran, N., Challis, D., Fernandez, J.-L., Jacobs, S., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Manthorpe, J., Netten, A., Stevens, M. & Wilberforce, M., (2011), 'Personalisation and partnership: competing objectives in English adult social care? The Individual Budget pilot projects and the NHS', Social Policy & Society, 10(2): 151-162.

Manthorpe, J., Stevens, M., Rapaport, J., Challis, D., Jacobs, S., Netten, A., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Wilberforce, M. & Glendinning, C. (2011) 'Individual budgets and adult safeguarding: Parallel or converging tracks? Further findings from the evaluation of the Individual Budget pilots', Journal of Social Work, 11(4): 422-438.

Manthorpe, J., (2010), 'Personalisation. Where we are and how we got here', London Age, Summer: 2-3.

Manthorpe, J., Stevens, M., Rapaport, J., Jacobs, S., Challis, D., Wilberforce, M., Netten, A., Knapp, M. & Glendinning, C., (2010), 'Gearing up for personalisation: training activities commissioned in the English pilot Individual Budgets sites 2006-2008', Social Work Education, 29(3): 319-331.

Manthorpe, J., Jacobs, S., Rapaport, J., Challis, D., Netten, A., Glendinning, C., Stevens, M., Wilberforce, M., Knapp, M. & Harris, J., (2009), 'Training for change: early days of Individual Budgets and the implications for social work and care management practice: a qualitative study of the views of trainers', British Journal of Social Work, 39(7): 1291-1305.

Manthorpe, J., Stevens, M., Rapaport, J., Harris, J., Jacobs, S., Challis, D., Netten, A., Knapp, M., Wilberforce, M. & Glendinning, C., (2009), 'Safeguarding and system change: early perceptions of the implications for adult protection services of the English individual budgets pilots—a qualitative study', British Journal of Social Work, 39(8): 1465-1480.

Manthorpe, J., (2008), 'Individual budgets on the frontline', Community Care, 13 November: 30-31.

Manthorpe, J., (2008), 'Individual budgets - the story so far', Community Care, 6 November: 32-33.

Manthorpe, J., (2008), 'A work in progress', Community Care, 20 November: 30-31.

Manthorpe, J., Stevens, M., Challis, D., Netten, A., Glendenning, C., Knapp, M., Wilberforce, M., Jacobs, S., Jones, K., Moran, N. & Fernandez, J.-L., (2008), 'Individual budget projects come under the microscope', Mental Health Today, December: 22-26.

Glendinning, C., Challis, D., Fernández, J.-L., Jones, K., Knapp, M., Manthorpe, J., Netten, A., Stevens, M. & Wilberforce, M., (2007), 'Research note: evaluating the individual budget pilot projects', Journal of Care Services Management, 1(2): 123-128.

Stevens, M., (2006), 'Individual budgets: on the launch pad', Journal of Integrated Care, 14(6): 23-31.

Presentations
Manthorpe, J (2008) Personal budgets and extra care, London, Department of Health, 8 October.

Manthorpe, J (2008) Personalised in practice: individual budgets, Counsel and Care, London, 20 November.

Manthorpe, J (2008) Lessons from the evaluation of individual budgets, London Councils, London, 26 November.

Manthorpe, J (2008) Individual budgets and No Secrets: fitness or ambiguity?, Westminster Social Services, London, 1 December. 
Related work
In addition to the IBSEN study, the Unit was commissioned to work with the major provider of social housing for older people, Housing 21, to explore the implications of IBs for services such as Extra Care housing:

Vallelly, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2009), 'Building Choices part 2: 'Getting Personal' - The impact of personalisation on older people's housing. Overall project summary' [pdf, 716 KB], London: Housing 21; Tenant Services Authority. 

IBSEN website

The main IBSEN website is hosted by Social Policy Research Unit at the University of York.
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