Building on the success of initial nuclear security education PDCs, CSSS have been supported by the IAEA (through the UK government's contribution to the nuclear security fund) to establish new nuclear security 'train-the-educator' programmes in three key regions: Sub-saharan Africa, the Middle East and South-East Asia. CSSS are currently mentoring the University of Witwatersrand (WITS) in South Africa as well as University Gadjah Mada (UGM) in Indonesia, assisting university staff in the design and development of a series of nuclear security education and training PDCs.
These PDCs consist of two one-week workshops, providing essential knowledge in nuclear security as well as supporting the development of educational courses in this area. To date nine PDCs have been run, training over 50 university lecturers and professors from more than 20 countries.
The most recent PDCs were focused on the interrelated topics of insider threats and security culture. They explored in detail the threat posed by insiders to nuclear facilities, the various preventative and protective measures that can be taken to mitigate these risks and the impact of security culture on their effectiveness. In 2015, the Centre also run a more technical PDC on Nuclear Material Accountancy and Control (NMAC) and Forensics.
The consortium also runs a series of IAEA-endorsed Fundamentals of Physical Protection workshops for practitioners (those working for nuclear operators and regulators) from around the world. The consortium ran the first of these workshops in January 2015, and two further workshops have been run since. The consortium is also developing an equivalent workshop for practitioners on radiological source security.
CSSS held a workshop in London on Fundamentals of Rad Source Security in November 2016, lasting five days. The workshop was organised by the UK-BEIS sponsored Nuclear Security Consortium, and was the second in this series, after a successful first run in March 2016. The workshop’s programme covered: radiological materials and their uses; radiological threats; international and national frameworks and regulatory approaches; physical protection systems and practices; interfaces between safety and security; security culture; transport security; illicit trafficking and border monitoring. The workshop made use of case studies, interactive teaching tools, and table-top exercises, and saw contributions by experts from academia, government and the private sectors. The workshop drew in 14 participants from 6 different countries from across the world.
The BEIS-sponsored Nuclear Security Culture Consortium held the fourth workshop on Fundamentals of Physical Protection in London for individuals accountable for nuclear security. The workshop aimed to introduce participants to nuclear threats posed by non-state actors and how physical protection systems and other measures can be used to mitigate them. This international workshop drew upon the inter-disciplinary nature of the consortium that includes regulatory, governmental, industrial and academic specialists. Drawing heavily on examples of international and UK best practice, the workshop made use of real-life case studies, interactive teaching tools, a detailed table-top exercise and a visit to a UK licensed nuclear site. The workshop drew in 15 participants from 9 different countries from across the world.
King’s College London (KCL), in partnership with Amity University organised a one-week Professional Development Course (PDC) on “Human Factor in Nuclear Security’’ from May 30 – June 3 in Noida, India. This was the third PDC that KCL has conducted in India during the last 12 months, building on previous engagements with the broader Indian nuclear security community. Around 15 academics and practitioners from Indian institutions attended the PDC hosted at Amity facilities in Noida, Uttar Pradesh. During the workshop, participants had the opportunity to explore in detail the role of the human element in nuclear security, with a specific reference to insider threats, physical protection and emergency response. A site visit to Nuvia India’s Radiation Monitoring Calibration Facility was also included during which participants learnt about radiation protection principles, security culture and local approaches to radiological security. Instructors delivered substantive lectures from KCL, Amity University, Punjab University and the Institute for Defense and Security Analyses (IDSA). Attendees took part in various pedagogical sessions centered upon curriculum design methods and the utility and challenges associated with the use of table-top exercises and case studies in teaching nuclear security. During the workshop, Mody University, which has participated in various KCL nuclear security educational activities, announced its intention to introduce a course on nuclear safety and security at postgraduate level starting from the next academic year.
CSSS held a fiveday workshop in Serpong on nuclear security culture and emergency prepardness in March 2016. The workshop was organised by the UK-DECC sponsored Nuclear Security Consortium working in cooperation with the Centre for Security Culture and Assessment (CSCA) at the Indonesian nuclear operator BATAN.The objective of this one-week workshop was to provide a detailed understanding of security culture, with a focus on emergency preparedness, from both a conceptual and practical perspective. Drawing on UK experience the workshop provided participants with a detailed understanding of key pre- and post-incident considerations, including aligning safety and security planning and assessment, post-incident handling, managing stakeholder relationships and building resilience within local communities. The workshop was simultaneously interpreted into Bahasa (Indonesian) and drew in a wide ranging field of experts from the Indonesian Division of Radiation, Protection & Safety, Division of Environment Monitoring & Emergency, the Nuclear Security Unit, Regional Disaster Management Agency, Quality Assurance Management Division and Operation and Safety Divsion amongst others.
CSSS held a four-day workshop in London on Fundamentals of Rad Source Security in March 2016. The workshop was organised by the UK-DECC sponsored Nuclear Security Consortium. The workshop delivered sessions on : radiological materials and their uses;radiological threats; case studies;international and national frameworks; regulatory approaches; physical protection systems and practices; safety-security interface; security culture; licensee approaches to management of sources;transport security;detention and ilicit trafficking and mitigating the effects of a radiological incident. The workshop drew in 15 participants from 8 different countries from across the world.
January 31st-5th of February Fundamentals of Physical Protection at Facilities Holding Nuclear and Radioactive Material Workshop
Location: London, UK
The DECC sponsored Nuclear Security Culture Consortium held the third workshop on Fundamentals of Physical Protection in London for individuals accountable for nuclear security. The workshop intended to introduce participants to nuclear threats posed by non-state actors and how physical protection systems and other measures can be used to mitigate them. This international workshop drew upon the inter-disciplinary nature of the consortium that includes regulatory, governmental, industrial and academic specialists. Drawing heavily on examples of international and UK best practice, the workshop included lectures and seminar format, group activities, real-life case studies, a detailed table-top exercise and a visit to a UK licensed nuclear site.
December 14th – 18th - Nuclear Security Culture Self Assessment Workshop
Location: Kiev, Ukraine
CSSS held a five-day workshop in Kiev on nuclear security cultureand self-assessment methods in December 2015. The workshop was organised by the UK-DECC sponsored Nuclear Security Consortium working in cooperation with the Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine. The workshop participants were drawn from the Ukrainian nuclear industry, the National Guard of Ukraine, and the nuclear regulator. The workshop considered the concept of nuclear security culture and its application at nuclear facilities before going on to consider nuclear security culture self-assessment. The event provided an in-depth consideration of methodologies for self-assessment, including various social science research methods.
The format of the workshop was highly interactive and involved an extensive table top exercise. This allowed participants to consider nuclear security culture and self-assessment by discussing implementation at a hypothetical nuclear facility. Workshop content was delivered by CSSS staff, subject matter experts from the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), and British and Ukrainian industry. The workshop was sponsored by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and forms part of the work of the DECC-sponsored Nuclear Security Culture Consortium.
December 14th-18th-Insider Threats and Security Culture PDC (week two)
The second week of the Professional Development Course (PDC) on Insider Threats and Security culture jointly organised by KCL and UGM took place in Bali, Indonesia between the 14th and 18th of December 2015.
All participants from the first week, 13 academics and practitioners from Brazil,Bulgaria, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco and Vietnam, participated also in the second and final week of the PDC, this time centred on the concept of security culture.
After an interactive review of the material covered during the first week, KCL instructors presented about the utility of using case studies to teach insider threats and underlined the main benefits and challenges associated with the use of this teaching methodology. The week continued with several sessions devoted to explore the topic of security culture and its importance in establishing and maintaining strong nuclear security practices. During the week, local practitioners from the regulatory body and the private sector participated in a panel discussion about the role of management in strengthening security culture. Participants then took part in a detailed table-top exercise constructed around a hypothetical nuclear facility of which they were asked to identify security culture flaws. Finally, instructors from KCL presented stressed the important role that culture plays in information security and knowledge management.
A considerable part of the week was also devoted to reviewing participants’ plans to include nuclear security in educational activities at their institutes. Here participants welcomed the proven PDC blend of substantive content integrated with pedagogy and teaching methods, stressing their interest to participate in future similar activities.
October 26th – 30th - Nuclear Security Culture Workshop
Location: Jakarta, Indonesia
Over five days in October 2015 CSSS convened two workshops in Jakarta on nuclear security culture. The first workshop provided an overview of nuclear security culture for managers, while the second provided a more in depth dealing of the topic. The workshops were organised by the DECC-sponsored nuclear security culture consortium in cooperation with BAPETEN, the Indonesian nuclear regulator. The events were attended by participants from the Indonesian nuclear industry – including those from BAPETEN, and the nuclear operator, BATAN. Representatives from government agencies, the police and other organisations also participated.
The workshop format was highly interactive with a nuclear security culture discussion exercise at the first workshop, and a table top exercise at the second. Workshop content was delivered by CSSS staff, and subject matter experts from the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), and industry in the UK and Indonesia.
September 14th-18th-Insider Threats and Security Culture PDC (week one)
King’s College London (KCL) and Gadjah Mada University (KCL) successfully completed the first week of the Professional Development Course (PDC) on Insider Threats and Security Culture that was hosted in Jogjakarta (Indonesia), between the 14th and 18th of September 2015, with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the U. S. Department of State’s Partnership for Nuclear Security (PNS). The first week of the workshop was attended by an international audience of practitioners and academics from Brazil, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco and Vietnam. The number of participants was kept deliberately small in order to allow for active participation and discussion, as well as small group activities and exercises.
The first week of the PDC served to introduce participants to the interrelated topics of insider threats and security culture and the various teaching methods that can be utilised to teach them. Subject matter experts from KCL and UGM engaged the audience in interactive sessions and small group exercises which explored the threat posed by insiders to nuclear facilities and their possible motivations, attributes and advantages over external adversaries. Participants undertook also target identification and insider characterisation exercises before playing the role of insiders in a series of red teaming scenarios to identify security weaknesses in a hypothetical facility. During the first week, participants had also the opportunity to visit the BATAN-operated research reactor in Yogyakarta and were given a tour of various facilities on site. They were also able to ask questions related to security culture, insider threats and physical protection systems to the facility manager.
August 24th - 28th - Insider Threat and Security Culture PDC (second week)
Location: Noida, India
The last week of August saw the successful completion of the second part of the centre’s Professional Development Course (PDC) on Insider Threats and Security Culture in India. The training course was again hosted by Amity University in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, and supported by the US Department of State’s Partnership for Nuclear Security. Whereas the first week had served to highlight the threat posed by insiders working at facilities hosting nuclear or radiological material, as well as the topic of ‘Nuclear Material Accountancy and Control’ (NMAC) and preventative and protective measures, the second week saw an even more interactive schedule. Participants were first familiarised with the concept of nuclear security culture and the importance of the human factor in the maintenance and improvement of security systems. Subsequently, they tackled one of the Centre’s trademark table top exercises based around a hypothetical facility, where they were able to put the learning outcomes into practice. Participants had also the opportunity to visit the state-of-the art radiation monitoring calibration facility at Nuvia India, where they also witnessed ‘real-life’ security measures in place at an operational facility. Overall, the Centre’s two-week PDC in India was a major success, introducing an exclusively South Asian audience to nuclear security concepts they had not been exposed to previously. Marking CSSS’s first PDC in India, the Centre hopes it will spark not only the promotion of the PDC’s content in local teaching curricula, but also serve as a stepping stone towards further collaborations in the region.
August 3rd - 7th - Insider Threat and Security Culture PDC (second week)
Location: Marrakesh, Morocco
In the first week of August the Centre, with the support of the US Department of State’s Partnership for Nuclear Security and with the assistance from a subject matter expert from the Idaho State University, conducted the second half of its Professional Development Course (PDC) on Insider Threats and Security Culture in Marrakesh, Morocco. The lecturers again addressed an international audience of 20 academics and practitioners from Algeria, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Jordan, Morocco, Nigeria and South Africa. This time around, a particular focus was on the hands-on application of the previously conveyed educational content as participants engaged in group-based case studies and cutting-edge table top exercises. The second week of the PDC further cemented the concept of security culture and the role that the human factor in security systems plays in strengthening or degrading preventative and protective measures against insider threats. Along with substantive nuclear security topics, KCL instructors delivered pedagogical sessions on innovative teaching methods, with a focus on table-tops and case studies, and educational resources and reviewed participants’ plans to include nuclear security in educational activities at their institutes. The PDC presented a great networking opportunity for the Centre and the participants, allowing for enhanced understanding of the local academic environment and potential cooperation opportunities in the future.
July 6th – 8th -- NMAC and Nuclear Forensics PDC (week one)
Sep 9th-11th 2015 (week two)
Johannesburg, South Africa
In early July the Centre, together with the University of Witwatersrand, (SA), the University of Massachusetts-Lowell (USA) and supported by the IAEA, held the first part of yet another ‘Train-The-Trainer’ Professional Development Course in Johannesburg, South Africa. This course, attended by a grouping of South African academics and practitioners alike, explores the techniques, processes and systems for preventing, detecting and deterring the unauthorised removal of nuclear material and its trafficking once outside of regulatory control. The first workshop focused on an introduction to Nuclear Material Accountancy and Control (NMAC) as well as Nuclear Forensics, outlining the relevant international guidance and international nuclear security regime as well as delivering a hands-on primer on commonly used nuclear material measurement techniques. The second workshop, to be held in September 2015, will delve deeper into utility aspects of NMAC and Nuclear Forensics and also feature a visit to a nuclear site. As per usual, an important part of the PDC is didactics, with curriculum design/planning and teaching methods a cornerstone of the course.
June 24th – 26th 2015 - Nuclear Security Culture Workshop
Location: Hanoi, Vietnam
In June 2015, CSSS, alongside partners of the DECC sponsored Nuclear Security Consortium, organised a nuclear security culture workshop in Hanoi in cooperation with the Vietnamese Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (the Vietnamese nuclear regulator - VARANS). Mirroring the approach of the workshop held in Indonesia in March 2015, this three-day workshop was aimed at a national audience, including VARANS staff, individuals working at nuclear and radiological facilities, and other related organisations.
The workshop saw participants introduced to the concept of security culture, and its practical implementation at nuclear facilities. The workshop was interactive in nature and saw lectures complemented by interactive case studies, group discussions and a table top exercise. The workshop content was delivered by CSSS staff with contributions from the UK National Nuclear Laboratory, VARANS, and industry and regulatory experts from the UK. The workshop was simultaneously translated into Vietnamese.
June 1st – 5th 2015 - Insider Threats and Security Culture PDC (week one)
24th-28th of August 2015 (week two)
Location: Noida, India
In June the Centre for Science and Security Studies, together with Amity University and again supported by the U.S. State Department through its ‘Partnership for Nuclear Security’ initiative successfully held the first week of its first Professional Development Course in India – the first PDC of its kind to ever be organised in South Asia .
There, 21 academics from the subcontinent, hailing from 11 universities and research institutes were introduced to the concepts of nuclear security. Similar to the PDC in Morocco a week earlier, a particular spotlight was put on the threats posed to nuclear facilities by insiders and risk mitigation. As always, teaching methods and curriculum design also played an important part in the lectures, which were delivered by staff from the Centre, Amity University, Texas A&M and the University of Massachusetts-Lowell. The second week, to take place August 24th to 28th, will further emphasise pedagogical aspects and focus as well on nuclear security culture.
May 25th – 29th 2015 - Insider Threats & Security Culture PDC
Second week: 3-7th of August 2015
In May the Centre, supported by the U.S. State department’s ‘Partnership for Nuclear Security’ held the first week of its first Professional Development Course in North Africa, Marrakesh, Morocco. A multi-national grouping of nuclear security educators from both academia and the public sector were engaged by lecturers from CSSS as well as the University of Tennessee on concepts of nuclear security, focusing on insider threats to nuclear facilities, the ‘human factor’ in security systems and ways to mitigate risks. Jointly with the security lectures that featured case studies and hands-on interactive group exercises, teaching methods and curriculum-building were also cornerstones of this PDC. The second week, to be held August 3rd-7th, will expand on Nuclear Security culture, leadership and knowledge management.
March 23rd – 27th 2015 - Nuclear Security Culture Workshop
In March 2015, CSSS, working with DECC-sponsored Nuclear Security Consortium partners, cooperated with the Centre for Security Culture and Assessment (CSCA) at Indonesian nuclear operator BATAN, to hold a nuclear security culture workshop in Indonesia. The workshop was attended by participants from the Indonesian nuclear industry – from BATAN, and the Indonesian nuclear regulator, BAPETEN.
Participants were introduced to the concept of nuclear security culture, and tools and methods for its implementation at the facility level. The workshop was highly interactive in nature with a focus on interactive case-studies and a table top exercise involving a hypothetical facility. The workshop content was delivered by CSSS staff as well as experts from BATAN, Imperial College London, the UK National Nuclear Laboratory and British industry. The workshop was simultaneously translated into Bahasa-Indonesia.
Feb 23-24 - Advanced Nuclear Security Curriculum Development Workshop
In February the CSSS successfully led an 'Advanced Nuclear Security Curriculum Development' workshop at the Vienna Centre for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation. It was supported by the Partnership for Nuclear Security and enjoyed a multinational participation mainly from the MENA-region, but also Indonesia and South Africa. As part of the train-the-trainer philosophy, sessions focused on how to incorporate nuclear security case studies and table-top exercises into curricula as well as the use of advanced pedagogical models and their application in a nuclear security context. The workshop was held in advance of the IAEA supported International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) 2015 Working Group Meeting, which attendees, many of whom are already dedicated INSEN-members, were also invited to participate in.
Jan 15 - Fundamentals of Physical Protection at Facilities Holding Nuclear and Radioactive Materials Workshop
King's College London, UK
CSSS and partners from the DECC-sponsored Nuclear Security Culture Consortium held an IAEA-endorsed Fundamentals of Physical Protection workshop in January 2015. The participants, mostly practitioners from nuclear operators and regulators, were introduced to the various nuclear threats posed by non-state actors and how physical protection systems and other measures can be used to mitigate them. The programme involved lectures from academic, industry, and regulatory subject matter experts, as well as interactive sessions including an extensive tabletop exercise. Participants also undertook a day trip to a UK licensed nuclear site – Dungeness B nuclear power station. This workshop was the first of a number of this format – the Fundamentals workshops are held on a six-monthly basis.
Sep/Dec 2014 - Introduction to Nuclear Security PDC
Location: Yogyakarta, Indonesia
A new edition of the two one-week introductory course on nuclear security has been held in September, with the second week coming up in December 2014. This time held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, CSSS has teamed up with Gadjah Mada University and the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) to prime educators on a wide range of nuclear security topics, from a backgrounder on nuclear physics over to the threat posed by non-state actors, the international security regime, nuclear security culture and physical protection principles for nuclear and radiological facilities as well as transport and information security. The workshop is attended by practitioners and academics alike, from a wide range of countries such as Indonesia, Nigeria, Morocco, Egypt and South Africa.
Oct/Nov 2014 - Nuclear Security Regulation PDC
Cape Town, South Africa
A two-week introductory course on nuclear security regulations has been held in October, with the second week coming up in late November. In partnership with the University of Witwatersrand, CSSS is organising a PDC focused on the legislative and regulatory frameworks as well associated administrative measures that govern nuclear security regimes. Sessions are led by a mix of international and South African nuclear security experts. The attendants are comprised of academics and practitioners in equal measure, ranging from a diverse set of countries such as South Africa, Nigeria, Jordan, Ukraine and the UK.
June/August 2014 - Insider Threats PDC
Location: Johannesburg, South Africa
In July and August 2014, a two one-week workshop was organised by CSSS in Johannesburg, supported by the University of Witwatersrand and the IAEA. Course content centred around understanding the threat posed to nuclear facilities by “insiders”, and discussing mitigation through a variety of preventive and protective measures. Explicitly the application of technical and administrative procedures was discussed. Attendants included academics and practitioners from mainly South Africa, but also Nigeria, Morocco, Egypt, Ukraine and Indonesia.
March/April/May 2014-Nuclear Security Culture & Information Security PDC
Location: Cape Town, South Africa
In March/April and May 2014 a two one-week, interactive workshop on Nuclear Security Culture and Information Security aimed at educators was held by CSSS in Cape Town, South Africa. Teaming up with the University of Witwatersrand and the US State Department’s Partnership for Nuclear Security (PNS), the professional development course emphasised the human dimension of nuclear security and introduced participants to various cyber and insider threats at nuclear facilities, cyber security principles and the evaluation of security culture. The workshop was able to attract an international mix of academics and practitioners, with attendants hailing from South Africa, Morocco, Egypt, Nigeria, the UK, Germany and France.
Jan /March 2014-Introduction to Nuclear Security PDC
Johannesburg, South Africa
In January and March 2014 a, two one-week introductory course on Nuclear Security Education was held in Johannesburg, South Africa. Hosted and organized in conjunction with our partner in South Africa, the University of Witwatersrand, the workshop covered a wide range of topics, from a primer in nuclear physics and the fuel cycle over to the threat posed by non-state actors, the international nuclear security regime and physical protection principles for nuclear and radiological facilities. Attendance was profoundly international, and included participants from countries such as South Africa, Morocco, Egypt, Austria, USA and the UK.
Partnership with INSEN
CSSS staff have been actively involved in the International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN) since its inception in 2010. An international partnership between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), select universities, research institutes and relevant nuclear stake holders, INSEN strives to support the establishment of educational courses in nuclear security (preventing, detecting and responding to acts of nuclear and radiological terrorism).
INSEN is composed of three working groups focusing on: the development of new teaching materials and textbooks; the training of faculty to deliver nuclear security courses; and the promotion of network activities and the importance of nuclear security education to different audiences.
Dr Christopher Hobbs is currently Vice-Chair of INSEN.
Andrea Braunegger-Guelich, Dr Heyes and Dr Hobbs