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New knowledge

Secondary data analysis of the NMDS-SC

Purpose

Based on extensive research into the social care workforce utilising the largest sector specific data (the National Minimum Data Set for Social Care), this project attempts to further our understanding by linking it to other quantitative and qualitative data.

Researcher

Shereen Hussein

Funding

Department of Health, Policy Research Programme

Background

The NMDS-SC is the first attempt to gather standardized workforce information for the social care sector. Run by Skills for Care, it aims to gather a ‘minimum’ set of information about services and staff across all service user groups and sectors within the social care sector in England. The NMDS-SC was launched in October 2005, and the online version in July 2007. Two data sets are collected from employers. The first gives information on the establishment and service(s) provided as well as total numbers of staff working in different job roles. The second is also completed by employers, but collects information about individual staff members. The NMDS-SC provides the sector with a unique data set, giving information on a number of workforce characteristics.

Methods

This ongoing study started by utilising this data to investigate policy and academic relevant topics. After establishing evidence on key areas in the sector, including wage structure and workforce dynamics, the project has moved on to combine quantitative analysis of the NMDS-SC with other qualitative data examining different research areas. These include motivations, experience and job satisfaction of the care workforce from the SCWRU Longitudinal Care Work Study (LoCS) and more focused analysis on migrant workers and on men in the care sector.

Timetable

2007 – ongoing

Output

The SCWRU Social Care Workforce Periodical (SCWP) series provides timely, up-to-date information on the social care workforce in England using the NMDS-SC dataset. In 2013-2014 we presented this work at several international conferences including: Gender, Work and Organization, the Nordic Congress of Gerontology, and Voluntary Sector & Volunteering. The findings were also discussed at six meetings or seminars within the academic community, research centres and Unions.

In 2016 earlier quantitative analyses was complemented by secondary qualitative analysis of data obtained from other research projects including those on migrant workers and men. Three peer-reviewed articles were published in 2016 focusing on gender, migrant men and migrants’ destination choices.

Impact

Findings are reported regularly in the professional press and media. Detailed analysis has informed a number of recent reports and policy briefings on the social care sector by Independent Age & the International Longevity Centre UK and the King’s Fund. Analysis of low wages was instrumental in raising awareness of the subject which resulted in an evidence session organised by the Low Pay Commission and HM Revenue & Customs focusing on non-compliance of payment of the National Minimum Wage in the social care sector. Examples of using data for the purpose of improving practice were presented to Skills for Care customers, including employers’ groups.

Social Care Workforce Periodical (SCWP)

The following issues of SCWP, together with introductory web pages for each, are available from the Social Care Workforce Periodical pages.

Hussein, S. (2011) 'Estimating probabilities and numbers of direct care workers paid under the National Minimum Wage in the UK: A Bayesian approach. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 16: December 2011', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S. (2011) 'British Black and Minority Ethnic groups' participation in the care sector. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 15: November 2011', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S. (2011) 'Men in the English care sector. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 14: September 2011', London, Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2011), 'Volunteers in the formal long-term care workforce. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 13: June 2011', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit.

Hussein, S., (2011), 'Migrant workers in long term care: evidence from England on trends, pay and profile. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 12: March 2011', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2011), 'The contributions of migrants to the English care sector. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 11: February 2011', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'Who cares for the family-carers of adults and older people? Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 10: December 2010', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'The dementia social care workforce in England. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 9: September 2010', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'Reported reasons for job shifting in the English care sector. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 8: August 2010', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'Modelling pay in adult care using linear mixed-effects models. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 7: June 2010', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'Pay in adult social care in England. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 6: May 2010', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'Adult care workers at the upper end of the 'third age' (60-75) in England. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 5: March 2010', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'Adult day care workforce in England. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 4: February 2010', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London. [And see Hussein & Manthorpe (2010) Journal of Intellectual Disabilities article below]

Hussein, S., (2010), 'The role of young workers (18-25) in the English care sector. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 3: January 2010', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2009), 'Social care workforce profile: Age, gender and ethnicity. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 2: September 2009', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Hussein, S., (2009), 'The size, roles and stability of the social care workforce in England. Social Care Workforce Periodical, Issue 1: August 2009', London: Social Care Workforce Research Unit, King's College London.

Report

Gardiner, L. & Hussein, S. (2015) 'As if we cared. The costs and benefits of a living wage for social care workers', London: Resolution Foundation.

Articles

Hussein, S. (2017) ‘We don’t do it for the money’...  The scale and reasons of poverty-pay among frontline long term care workers in England. Health and Social Care in the Community. DOI: 10.1111/hsc.12455

Hussein, S. & Christensen, K. (2017) 'Migration, gender and low-paid work: on migrant men’s entry dynamics into the feminised social care work in the UK', Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(5): 749-765.

Christensen, K., Hussein, S. & Ismail, M. (2016, in press) 'Migrant intelligence shaping work destination choice:  the case of long-term care work in the United Kingdom and Norway', European Journal of Aging.

Hussein, S., Ismail, M. & Manthorpe, J. (2015, online) 'Changes in turnover and vacancy rates of care workers in England from 2008 to 2010: panel analysis of national workforce data', Health & Social Care in the Community.

Hussein, S., Ismail, M. & Manthorpe, J. (2014, online) 'Male workers in the female-dominated long-term care sector: evidence from England', Journal of Gender Studies.

Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J. & Ismail, M. (2014, online) 'Ethnicity at work: the case of British minority workers in the long-term care sector', Equality, diversity and inclusion: An international journal, 33(2).

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J. (2014) 'Volunteers supporting older people in formal care settings in England: personal and local factors influencing prevalence and type of participation', Journal of Applied Gerontology, 33(8): 923-941. [See issue 13]

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J. (2012, online) 'Structural marginalisation among the long-term care workforce in England: evidence from mixed-effect models of national pay data', Ageing & Society. [deriving from SCWP issues 6 and 7]

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J. (2012) 'The diversity of staff supporting family carers in England: findings from an analysis of a national data set', Diversity and Equality in Health and Care, 9(2): 101-111. [deriving from SCWP Issue 10]

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2011, online), 'The dementia social care workforce in England: secondary analysis of a national workforce dataset', Aging & Mental Health. [deriving from SCWP Issue 9]

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2011), '‘Third-age’ workers caring for adults and older people in England: findings from secondary analysis of the National Minimum Data Set for Social Care', Diversity in Health and Care, 8(2): 103-112.

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2010), 'The adult day care workforce in England at a time of policy change: implications for learning disability support services', Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 14(2): 95-110. [deriving from SCWP Issue 4]

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2010), 'Attracting young adults (18-25 years) to work in social care in England: how secondary data analysis may assist policy makers and providers', Diversity in Health and Care, 7(4): 229-239. [deriving from SCWP Issue 3]

Presentations

Hussein, S. (2015) 'What further data do we need to improve measurement of NMW non-compliance in social care?', Low Pay Commission, London, 4 June.

Hussein, S. (2014) 'Oral testimony to the Commission', Burstow Commission on the Future of the Home Care Workforce, UK Parliament, London, 10 July.

Hussein, S. (2014) 'Migration and gender trajectories within the female-dominated care work in the United Kingdom', 22nd Nordic Gerontology Congress, Gothenburg, 26 May.

Hussein, S. (2014) 'The social care workforce. Opening remarks for the roundtable discussion on care sector working conditions', Baroness Kingsmill Review into exploitation in social care, House of Lords, London, 20 February.

Hussein, S. (2013) 'Volunteers in formal long term care settings in England', 19th Voluntary Sector and Volunteering Research Conference Sheffield, 11 September.

Hussein, S. (2013) 'The National Minimum Dataset for Social Care', SCWRU - Ipsos MORI Summer Policy Research Symposium, London, 20 June.

Hussein, S. (2013) 'The UK immigration policies and the long term care workforce', Centre for Health Service Economics & Organisation, London, 13 June.

Hussein, S. (2013) 'The homecare workforce', UNISON, London, 30 May.

Hussein, S. (2013) 'The English social care workforce structure: labour market and global mobility', University of Sussex, 28 May.

Manthorpe, J. (2013) 'Apprentices and social care work', London Borough of Enfield, 15 February.

Hussein, S. (2012) 'Pay differentials in the low paid employment of social care' [pdf, 1.5 MB], Low Pay Commission Annual Research Workshop, London, 10 October.

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J. (2012) 'Marginalisation and pay differentials in the UK social care sector' [pdf, 1.18 MB], 2nd International Conference on Evidence-based Policy in Long-term Care, London, 8 September.

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J. (2012) 'Combining knowledge to estimate the percentage of care workers paid under the national minimum wage in the UK: a Bayesian approach' [pdf, 570 KB], Royal Statistical Society 2012 International Conference, Telford, 4 September.

Hussein, S. (2012) 'National Minimum Wage and the social care sector' [pdf, 1.06 MB], Resolution Foundation, London, 27 March.

Hussein, S. & Manthorpe, J., (2011), 'The dementia social care workforce in England: secondary analysis of a national workforce data set [poster]' [pdf, 563 KB], National Care Home Congress, Birmingham, 23 June.

Hussein, S., (2011), 'Time to reflect..."What's so special about the social care workforce?"' [pdf, 708 KB], Excellence Out Of Adversity. Innovative ways of supporting the health and social care workforce. Third international new types of worker research conference (Skills for Care), Glasgow, 2 February.

Hussein, S., (2010), 'The role of young adults (18-25) in providing formal long term care in England' [ppt, 1,112 KB], International Conference on Evidence-based Policy in Long Term Care, London, 9 September. [deriving from SCWP Issue 3]

Hussein, S. (2010) 'The SCWRU National Minimum Data Set for Social Care Project', Skills for Care's Board, 17 March.

Media

There is more media coverage reported on individual issue pages of the Social Care Workforce Periodical, especially—in relation to pay—on the Issue 16 page.

22 December 2011 New Statesman: 'The scandal of low-paid care workers' (blog post by Gavin Kelly and Joe Coward) [Issue 16]

3 October 2011 BBC Panorama: ‘All work and low pay’ (programme available on iPlayer for a year from date of broadcast. Segment focusing on social care, including an interview with Dr Hussein, is at 16min 28sec) [Issue 16]

3 October 2011 The Guardian: ‘150,000 social care workers paid below legal minimum wage, research reveals’ [Issue 16]

3 October 2011 Community Care: ‘Up to 200,000 care assistants paid below minimum rate’ [Issue 16]

2 October 2011 BBC Panorama: ‘Thousands of care workers paid under legal limit’ [Issue 16]

14 April 2010 Community Care reports on Issue 6 of SCWP, Pay in adult social care in England.

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