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Plagiarism and academic referencing

Citation and referencing styles


Citing references

There are recognised conventions for citing the work of others in essays, journal articles etc. Bibliographic references, or citations, will normally appear within the text of the work as cited references and at the bottom of the page where they appear as footnotes, or at the end of each chapter, or of an entire piece, where they appear in endnotes. In-text citations are placed at the point within the text at which reference is made to another’s work, and these refer the reader to the reference list which is usually placed at the end of the essay or dissertation.

Footnotes and endnotes may also include notes on the text which are not direct sources. A compiled list of references at the end of an entire work is called a bibliography. A bibliography may include general reference works that have been consulted as well as works that provide cited references.

Ensure that you adhere to any guidelines on citation practice provided by your School or Department. If you are not sure of what is required, ask your personal tutor or module tutor or the programme administrator in your Department office.


Read through the general guide to citing references.

External link

Citation and bibliographies on the Information Literacy Website.

Referencing styles

Important:- Read thoroughly any guidelines provided by your department and adhere to any requirements about the correct style of referencing for essays and dissertations.

There are hundreds of different referencing styles and most vary only slightly with each other. The key is to apply the style consistently throughout your work. Bibliographic (referencing) software can usually help to conform to the style required in a consistent manner.

For general guidance on referencing styles see the external links below.

Style guides and resources on the Internet from IFLA.

The Modern Humanities Research Association Style guide can be downloaded here.

Referencing resources and lots more from


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