The goods that were exported to Iran in this case included carbon fibre, which has a broad range of civil and military uses, but which may also be used in nuclear gas centrifuges, specifically in the tubes and bellows of rotor assemblies. Carbon fibre may also be used in military aircraft, such as fighter jets, and lightweight casings for large, solid-propellant rocket motors. All of the individuals mentioned above were indicted on counts relating to conspiracy to violate, or actual violation of, the US International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), under which trade with Iran is restricted. This case study serves to highlight some of the reasons why goods that can be indigenously produced in countries such as Iran are sought from the West, and the potential dangers to which Western firms are exposed when engaging with networks such as the one involved here.
Please see below for a PDF of the full case study.