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HIV infection leads to a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, even in those where the virus is effectively controlled by antiretrovirals. This has led to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal impairment, reduced bone mineral density, and micronutrient deficiencies. Additionally, the use of certain antiretrovirals has been associated with increased risk of obesity. Research undertaken in this field includes exploring enablers and barriers to lifestyle change, investigating dietary quality and care pathways in the UK and in Africa, and testing novel interventions to reduce risk of metabolic comorbidities.