Evaluation of cell-free mtDNA as a predictor of risk to diabetic nephropathy This project utilises a number of patient cohorts: a) The KingsDiab cohort, currently comprising of >500 blood /urine samples collected by The Malik lab since 2009, The GSTT Diabetes clinics, in collaboration with Professor Gnudi. The plasma and serum samples are being used to evaluate mtDNA as a risk marker b) The Pima Indian cohort from Arizona, USA (Dr Robert Nelson), a longitudinal study of diabetes and its complications. Samples collected between 1965 and 2007, with follow up data available until Dec 2013. Baseline serum and urine samples are being used to determine if cell-free mtDNA correlates with risk of DN progression in this cohort. c) The SURDIAGENE cohort, in Collaboration with Professor Pierre-Jean Saulnier at Université de Poitiers, Paris France, we are analysing blood samples from patients in with diabetic nephropathy to determine the mtDNA content in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.