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The SOUth London Diabetes (SOUL-D) Study

The SOUth London Diabetes (SOUL-D) study is a prospective cohort study of the association between depression and diabetes outcomes in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. It is now following patients 10-12 years after they were initially recruited.

The aim of this study is to examine a range of biological, psychological, and social factors in a group of people who have just been diagnosed with T2DM to determine their independent impact, and their interactions, on biomedical targets, quality of life, psychological functioning, and economic consequences over 10 years since diagnosis. In addition, to study whether screening for depression improves the course and outcome for depression and for diabetes, and to identify the characteristics of those most at risk for depression and for poor diabetes control.

The cohort is multi-ethic and over 1700 people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were recruited at baseline. The study is now following participants up at 10+ years since baseline via face-to-face interview and medical records.


Moulton, C. D., Pickup, J. C., Rokakis, A. S., Amiel, S. A., Ismail, K., & Stahl, D. (2019). The Prospective Association Between Inflammation and Depressive Symptoms in Type 2 Diabetes Stratified by Sex. Diabetes care, 42(10), 1865-1872.

Ismail, K., Moulton, C. D., Winkley, K., Pickup, J. C., Thomas, S. M., Sherwood, R. A., ... & Amiel, S. A. (2017). The association of depressive symptoms and diabetes distress with glycaemic control and diabetes complications over 2 years in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study. Diabetologia, 60(10), 2092-2102.

Winkley, K., Stahl, D., Chamley, M., Stopford, R., Boughdady, M., Thomas, S., ... & Ismail, K. (2016). Low attendance at structured education for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: General practice characteristics and individual patient factors predict uptake. Patient education and counseling, 99(1), 101-107

Moulton, C. D., Pickup, J. C., Amiel, S. A., Winkley, K., & Ismail, K. (2016). Investigating incretin-based therapies as a novel treatment for depression in type 2 diabetes: Findings from the South London Diabetes (SOUL-D) Study. Primary care diabetes, 10(2), 156-159.

Mohandas, C., Ayis, S., Stahl, D., Chamley, M., Alberti, K. G., Ismail, K., & Amiel, S. A. (2015). Ethnic differences in the clinical progression of early Type 2 diabetes: findings from the South London Diabetes Cohort (soul-d) study. Diabetic Medicine, 32, 27-28.

Winkley, K., Evwierhoma, C., Amiel, S. A., Lempp, H. K., Ismail, K., & Forbes, A. (2015). Patient explanations for non‐attendance at structured diabetes education sessions for newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study. Diabetic Medicine, 32(1), 120-128.

Azam, M., Marwood, L., Ismail, K., Evans, T., Sivaprasad, S., Winkley, K., & Amiel, S. A. (2015). Diabetes Complications at Presentation and One Year by Glycated Haemoglobin at Diagnosis in a Multiethnic and Diverse Socioeconomic Population: Results from the South London Diabetes Study. Journal of diabetes research, 2015.

Winkley, K., Thomas, S. M., Sivaprasad, S., Chamley, M., Stahl, D., Ismail, K., & Amiel, S. A. (2013). The clinical characteristics at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population: the South London Diabetes cohort (SOUL-D). Diabetologia, 56(6), 1272-1281.

Twist, K., Stahl, D., Amiel, S. A., Thomas, S., Winkley, K., & Ismail, K. (2013). Comparison of depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes using a two-stage survey design. Psychosomatic medicine, 75(8), 791-797.

Laake, J. P. S., Stahl, D., Amiel, S. A., Petrak, F., Sherwood, R. A., Pickup, J. C., & Ismail, K. (2014). The association between depressive symptoms and systemic inflammation in people with type 2 diabetes: findings from the South London Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care, 37(8), 2186-2192        

Upsher R, Alarcon-Yaquetto DE, Stahl D, Ismail K, Winkley K. Prospective study of the association between depressive symptoms at type 2 diabetes diagnosis and time to insulin initiation in the South London diabetes (SOUL-D) cohort. Prim Care Diabetes. 2022 Jun 8:S1751-9918(22)00101-2.