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Mindfulness therapy could offer alternative to antidepressants

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) could provide an alternative non-drug treatment for people who do not wish to continue long-term antidepressant treatment, suggests a new study led by the University of Oxford and involving researchers from the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN) at King’s College London.

The study, published in The Lancet, aimed to establish whether MBCT is superior to maintenance antidepressant treatment in terms of preventing relapse of depression.  

Although the findings show that MBCT is not any more effective than maintenance antidepressant treatment in preventing relapse of depression, the results, combined with those of previous trials, suggest that MCBT may offer similar protection against depressive relapse or recurrence for people who have experienced multiple episodes of depression, with no significant difference in cost.

Study co-author Professor Sarah Byford from the IoPPN at King’s College London, said: ‘As a group intervention, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was relatively low cost compared to therapies provided on an individual basis and, in terms of the cost of all health and social care services used by participants during the study, we found no significant difference between the two treatments.’

Professor Willem Kuyken, lead author from the University of Oxford, said: ‘Depression is a recurrent disorder. Without ongoing treatment, as many as four out of five people with depression relapse at some point.'

‘Currently, maintenance antidepressant medication is the key treatment for preventing relapse, reducing the likelihood of relapse or recurrence by up to two-thirds when taken correctly,’ added study co-author Professor Richard Byng, from the Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry. ‘However, there are many people who, for a number of different reasons, are unable to keep on a course of medication for depression. Moreover, many people do not wish to remain on medication for indefinite periods, or cannot tolerate its side effects.’

MBCT was developed to help people who have experienced repeated bouts of depression by teaching them the skills to recognise and to respond constructively to the thoughts and feelings associated with relapse, thereby preventing a downward spiral into depression. 

In this trial, which was conducted from the University of Exeter, UK, 424 adults with recurrent major depression and taking maintenance antidepressant medication were recruited from 95 primary care general practices across the South West of England. Participants were randomly assigned to come off their antidepressant medication slowly and receive MBCT (212 participants) or to stay on their medication (212 participants). 

Participants in the MBCT group attended eight 2 1/4 hour group sessions and were given daily home practice. After the group they had the option of attending 4 follow up sessions over a 12 month period. The MBCT course consists of guided mindfulness practices, group discussion and other cognitive behavioural exercises. Those in the maintenance antidepressant group continued their medication for two years.

All trial participants were assessed at regular intervals over two years for a major depressive episode using a psychiatric diagnostic interview tool - the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.

Over two years, relapse rates in both groups were similar (44 per cent in the MBCT group vs 47 per cent in the maintenance antidepressant medication group). Although five adverse events were reported, including two deaths, across both groups, they were not judged to be attributable to the interventions or the trial.  

Notes to editors

Kuyken, W. et al (2015) ���Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial’ The Lancet doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62222-4

For further media information please contact Jack Stonebridge, Press Officer, Institute of  Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London jack.stonebridge@kcl.ac.uk/ (+44) 020 7848 5377