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Professor Chris Hammond

Professor Chris Hammond

Chris HammondFrost Chair of Ophthalmology

Frost Chair of Ophthalmology
King’s College London
St Thomas’ Hospital Campus, 3rd Floor South Wing Block D
Westminster Bridge Road
London SE1 7EH
PA  Mrs Maria Bell
Tel: +44 20 7188 9055



  • BA Hons (Cambridge University), 1985
  • MA (Cambridge University), 1988
  • BM BCh (Oxford University), 1988
  • MRCP (UK) (Royal College of Physicians), 1991
  • FRCOphth (Royal College of Ophthalmologists), 1993
  • MD (University of London), 2000

Positions Held

  • House Physician, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, 1988-89
  • House Surgeon, Stoke-on-Trent, 1989
  • SHO in General Medicine, North Staffs Medical Rotation, Stoke-on-Trent, 1989-91
  • SHO in Ophthalmology, Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, 1991-93
  • SHO in Ophthalmology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge, 1993-94
  • Registrar in Ophthalmology, Western Eye Hospital, London, 1994-95
  • Senior Registrar in Ophthalmology, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, 1995-97
  • Wellcome Clinical Research Fellow, Institute of Ophthalmology & St Thomas’ Hospital, London, 1997-99
  • Fellow, Strabismus and Paediatric Ophthalmology Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, 1999-2000
  • Consultant Ophthalmologist, West Kent Eye Centre, Princess Royal University Hospital, Orpington, 2000-11
  • NIHR Senior Research Fellow, King’s College London (Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, St Thomas’ Hospital, London), 2008-13
  • Frost Chair of Ophthalmology, King’s College London (St Thomas’ Hospital, London), 2011-present

Research Interests

Genetic epidemiology of common eye diseases; myopia, cataract, glaucoma; twin studies.

Based in the Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology at the St Thomas’ Hospital Campus, Professor Hammond’s research has focused on the genetics of myopia, glaucoma, and age-related cataract using –omics technologies including genome-wide association studies, whole-genome sequencing, and epigenetics, and in particular measuring quantitative healthy variation in these traits in 3000-5000 twins.  He has also performed twin studies to examine the heritability of macular pigment, dry eye, and pupillary responses.  His NIHR Senior Research Fellowship, one of only three awarded nationally in 2008, recognised his work and supports his current research into the genetics of common age-related eye diseases.

Key Publications 

1. Hysi PG, Young TL, Fernandez-Medarde A, Mackey DA, Andrew T, Solouki AM, Hewitt AW, Macgregor S, Vingerling JR, Li Y-J, Ikram MK, Lee YF, Sham PC, Manyes L, Porteros A, Lopes ML, Carbonaro F, Fahy FJ, Martin NG, van Duijn CM, Spector TD, Rahi JS, Santos E, Klaver CCW, Hammond CJ.  A genome-wide association study for myopia and refractive error identifies a susceptibility locus at 15q25.  Nature Genetics 2010; 42: 902-905.

2. Macgregor S, Hewitt AW, Hysi PG, Ruddle JB, Medland SE, Henders AK, Gordon SD, Andrew T, McEvoy B, Sanfilippo PG, Carbonaro F, Tah V, Li YJ, Bennett SL, Craig JE, Montgomery GW, Tran-Viet KN, Brown NL, Spector TD, Martin NG, Young TL, Hammond CJ,Mackey DA. Genome-wide association identifies ATOH7 as a major gene determining human optic disc size. Hum Mol Genetics 2010: 19: 2716-24.

3. Liu F, Wollstein A, Hysi PG, Ankra-Badu GA, Spector TD, Park D, Zhu G, Larsson M, Duffy DL, Montgomery GW, Mackey DA, Walsh S, Lao O, Hofman A, Rivadeneira F, Vingerling JR, Uitterlinden AG, Martin NG, Hammond CJ, Kayser M. Digital quantification of human eye color highlights genetic association of three new loci. PLoS Genet. 2010 May 6; 6:e1000934.

4. Lopes MC, Andrew T, Carbonaro F, Spector TD, Hammond CJ. Estimating heritability and shared environmental effects for refractive error in twin and family studies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009; 50: 126-31.

Full publication list

Grants Awarded

  • TwinsUK (2012-2014) – an epidemiological and genomic resource. Wellcome Trust £1,508,502, 2012-2014. Investigators Spector, Hart, Hammond, Davey Smith, Prainsack
  • Rare variants in glaucoma: a whole-genome sequencing study. Fight for Sight PhD Studentship £99,350, 2011-2014. PI Hammond. Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers £10,000
  • TwinsUK resource: data and sample harmonisation towards open access and cohort maintenance. Wellcome Trust £653,187, 2010-2013. Investigators Spector, Hart, Ahmadi, Hammond, Cherkas
  • The genetics of common age-related eye disease: NIHR Senior Research Fellowship (SRF/01/2008/10). NIHR £630,237, 2008-2013. PI Hammond
  • Genetics of Ageing: genetic and environmental determinants of ageing in women. Wellcome Trust. £1,856,531, 2007-2012. Investigators: Spector, Valdes, Hammond, Jackson
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