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Cobalt is required in the diet in minute amounts and a deficiency in humans is rare. However, cobalt toxicity is more common. Cobalt and cobalt compounds are widely distributed in nature and excessive exposure can cause deleterious immune-mediated health effects.

The full entry for cobalt is undergoing validation and will be added to OpeN-Global soon.

For any questions meanwhile, please contact





U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryToxicological profile for cobalt, 2004.

CDC Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Public Health Statement

US CDC National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): NIOSH has for mission, to develop new knowledge in the field of occupational safety and health and to transfer that knowledge into practice. NIOSH offers NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), a collection of laboratory methods for sampling and analysis of contaminants such as trace metals, in blood and urine of workers who may be occupationally exposed. NIMAM also provides chapters on assurance, sampling, portable instrumentation and more. Access the latest NMAM here, or see here for a list of methods per chemical name.

WHO Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 69: Cobalt and Inorganic Cobalt Compounds

CDC National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods, in Blood and Urine.

Reference values for cobalt in blood and urine, derived from population data in Canada:

Saravanabhavan G, Werry K, Walker M, Haines D, Malowany M, Khoury C 2017 Human biomonitoring reference values for metals and trace elements in blood and urine derived from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2013. Int J Hyg Environ Health 220:189-200.