Skip to main content
KBS_Icon_questionmark link-ico


Fluoride is important for the mineralisation of bone and teeth, and most known for its role in oral health and prevention of dental caries.

The small amounts of fluoride provided through toothpaste or fluoridated water offer considerable protection against dental caries. WHO estimates that dental caries still affects 60-90% of schoolchildren worldwide and the majority of adults in most industrialised countries – and is the most widespread non-communicable disease (NCD). When consumed in optimal amounts in water and food, and used topically in oral hygiene products, fluoride increases tooth mineralisation and helps to reduce dental sensitivity. 

The full entry for fluoride is undergoing validation and will be added to OpeN-Global soon.

For any questions meanwhile, please contact


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryToxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride and fluorine.

US CDC National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): NIOSH has for mission, to develop new knowledge in the field of occupational safety and health and to transfer that knowledge into practice. NIOSH offers NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), a collection of laboratory methods for sampling and analysis of contaminants such as trace metals, in blood and urine of workers who may be occupationally exposed. NIMAM also provides chapters on assurance, sampling, portable instrumentation and more. Access the latest NMAM here, or see here for a list of methods per chemical name.

World Health Organisation Sugars and dental caries: Technical information note