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Useful links and references

Useful links and further reading on iodine biomarkers

Iodine Global Network

The Iodine Global Network (formerly the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, ICCIDD), is a non-profit non-governmental organisation that was established in 1986. It has the strategic goal to attain optimal iodine nutrition worldwide. The IGN core role is to advise on scientific and policy issues to achieve optimal iodine nutrition, in partnership with over 100 regional and national coordinators and partner agencies including UNICEF, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition and Nutrition International. The IGN provides numerous resources for program managers and researchers working on iodine nutrition.
– IGN have created a resource of information for programme managers on iodine, and offer a regularly-updated global scorecard of worldwide iodine status.

World Health Organization

The World Health Organisation (WHO) provides guidance on the assessment of population iodine status: Assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Monitoring their Elimination. A Programme Manager’s Guide; available here.

The WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information Service (VMNIS) have several resources on iodine:

Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development

For a comprehensive review of iodine biology and biomarkers, including the interpretation of biomarker results and constraints around using them, consult the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) review for iodine, available as an open-access resource here.


UNICEF Nutrition features a wealth of information on iodine, including:

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Along with running the EQUIP scheme to ensure the quality of urinary iodine assessment (see page 4), CDC have several resources on iodine:


The EUthyroid Project is a pan-European initiative with the aim of investigating and optimising the iodine intake of the European population, in cooperation with national European authorities. One of its primary goals is to optimise and harmonise population iodine biomarker assessment methods across Europe. Euthyroid has created guidelines for researchers conducting population studies, with a focus on the monitoring of iodine deficiency disorders. It includes general recommendations and issues related to study planning; detailed instructions and recommendations for specimen collection and sample handling, and an overview of laboratory analysis related to urinary iodine concentration and thyroid function parameters. The guideline is available here.

The American Thyroid Association

The American Thyroid Association (ATA) is the leading worldwide organization dedicated to the advancement, understanding, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders and thyroid cancer. The ATA produces numerous guidelines and manuals on thyroid health.

The European Thyroid Association

The aims of the European Thyroid Association are to promote knowledge in the thyroid field (fundamental and clinical) and improve knowledge of the thyroid gland and its diseases. Similarly to the ATA, the ETA produce many useful guidelines and publications.