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Useful links and references

Useful links

Chang AR, Grams ME 2014 Serum phosphorus and mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): effect modification by fasting. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 64:567-573.

UK Association of Clinical Biochemistry. Methods of phosphate analysis.


Further reading

Abuduli M, Ohminami H, Otani T, Kubo H, Ueda H, Kawai Y, Masuda M, Yamanaka-Okumura H, Sakaue H, Yamamoto H, Takeda E, Taketani Y 2016 Effects of dietary phosphate on glucose and lipid metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 310:E526-538.

Calvo MS, Uribarri J 2013 Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population. Am J Clin Nutr 98:6-15.

de Boer IH, Rue TC, Kestenbaum B 2009 Serum phosphorus concentrations in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Am J Kidney Dis 53:399-407.

Dominguez JR, Kestenbaum B, Chonchol M, Block G, Laughlin GA, Lewis CE, Katz R, Barrett-Connor E, Cummings S, Orwoll ES, Ix JH, Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Research G 2013 Relationships between serum and urine phosphorus with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Am J Kidney Dis 61:555-563.

Haap M, Heller E, Thamer C, Tschritter O, Stefan N, Fritsche A 2006 Association of serum phosphate levels with glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects. European journal of clinical nutrition 60:734-739.

Khattab M, Abi-Rashed C, Ghattas H, Hlais S, Obeid O 2015 Phosphorus ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance of healthy male subjects: a crossover experiment. Nutr J 14:112.


1.         Calvo MS, Lamberg-Allardt CJ 2015 Phosphorus. Adv Nutr 6:860-862.

2.         Kraft MD 2015 Phosphorus and calcium: a review for the adult nutrition support clinician. Nutr Clin Pract 30:21-33.

3.         US Institute of Medicine. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Chapter 5, Phosphorous. (Last accessed on 23 August, 2018).

4.         Bonjour JP 2011 Calcium and phosphate: a duet of ions playing for bone health. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 30:438s-448s.

5.         Lee HH, Loh SP, Bong CF, Sarbini SR, Yiu PH 2015 Impact of phytic acid on nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of dehusked rice. J Food Sci Technol 52:7806-7816.

6.         Prentice A 2013 Nutritional rickets around the world. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 136:201-206.

7.         Chang AR, Lazo M, Appel LJ, Gutierrez OM, Grams ME 2014 High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III. Am J Clin Nutr 99:320-327.

8.         Park W, Kim BS, Lee JE, Huh JK, Kim BJ, Sung KC, Kang JH, Lee MH, Park JR, Rhee EJ, Oh KW, Lee WY, Park CY, Park SW, Kim SW 2009 Serum phosphate levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome: a double-edged sword. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 83:119-125.

9.         Gutierrez OM 2013 The connection between dietary phosphorus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality: where we stand and what we need to know. Adv Nutr 4:723-729.