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Useful links and references

Useful links

National Academies Press. (2005).  Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate

WHO Potassium intake for adults and children. Guideline (2014)

NIH Factsheet for Health Professionals: Potassium 


1.              Aburto NJ, Hanson S, Gutierrez H, Hooper L, Elliott P, Cappuccio FP 2013 Effect of increased potassium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and disease: systematic review and meta-analyses. The BMJ 346:f1378.

2.              US Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board 2005 Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C. US.

3.              Lanham-New SA, Lambert H, Frassetto L 2012 Potassium. Adv Nutr 3:820-821.

4.              World Health Organization 2014 Guideline: Potassium intake for adults and children. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

5.              Nohara‐Shitama Y, Adachi H, Enomoto M, Fukami A, Kumagai E, Nakamura S, Kono S, Morikawa N, Nakao E, Sakaue A, Tsuru T, Fukumoto Y 2018 Twenty-four-Hour Urinary Potassium Excretion, But Not Sodium Excretion, Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in a General Population. Journal of the American Heart Association 7:e007369.

6.              World Health Organization 2003 Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease: report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. . WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

7.              Ovesen L, Boeing H 2002 The use of biomarkers in multicentric studies with particular consideration of iodine, sodium, iron, folate and vitamin D. European journal of clinical nutrition 56 Suppl 2:S12-17.

8.              John KA, Cogswell ME, Campbell NR, Nowson CA, Legetic B, Hennis AJ, Patel SM 2016 Accuracy and Usefulness of Select Methods for Assessing Complete Collection of 24-Hour Urine: A Systematic Review. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 18:456-467.

9.              Cox L, Guberg K, Young S, Nicholson S, Steer T, Prentice A, Page P 2018 Validation of the use of p-aminobenzoic acid to determine completeness of 24 h urine collections in surveys of diet and nutrition. European journal of clinical nutrition 72:1180-1182.

10.           Middleton DR, Watts MJ, Lark RM, Milne CJ, Polya DA 2016 Assessing urinary flow rate, creatinine, osmolality and other hydration adjustment methods for urinary biomonitoring using NHANES arsenic, iodine, lead and cadmium data. Environ Health 15:68.

11.           Cogswell ME, Maalouf J, Elliott P, Loria CM, Patel S, Bowman BA 2015 Use of Urine Biomarkers to Assess Sodium Intake: Challenges and Opportunities. Annu Rev Nutr 35:349-387.

12.           Jakobsen J, Pedersen AN, Ovesen L 2003 Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: effects of age and dosage scheduling. European journal of clinical nutrition 57:138-142.

13.           Public Health England 2014 National Diet and Nutrition Survey: assessment of dietary sodium. Adults (19 to 64 years) in England, 2014.

14.           McLean RM 2014 Measuring population sodium intake: a review of methods. Nutrients 6:4651-4662.

15.           Intersalt Cooperative Research Group 1988 Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. BMJ 297:319-328.

16.           Kawasaki T, Itoh K, Uezono K, Sasaki H 1993 A simple method for estimating 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion from second morning voiding urine specimen in adults. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology 20:7-14.

17.           Young DS 1997 Effects of preanalytical variables on clinical laboratory tests. 2nd ed. ed. Washington (D.C.) : AACC press.

18.           Zhang Y, Luo Y, Lu H, Wang N, Shen Y, Chen R, Fang P, Yu H, Wang C, Jia W 2015 Effect of freeze/thaw cycles on several biomarkers in urine from patients with kidney disease. Biopreserv Biobank 13:144-146.