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Useful links and references

Useful links

UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) statement on Potassium-Based Sodium Replacers (document download) SACN: Potassium-based sodium replacers

CDC Sodium Reduction Toolkit

National Academies Press. (2005).  Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate

Institute of Medicine (2010). Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States. National Academies Press.

Institute of Medicine (2013). Sodium intake in populations: assessment of evidence. National Academies Press.

UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) assessment of dietary sodium in adults in England, 2014 

WHO e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA): Reducing sodium intake to reduce blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular diseases in adults


1.              Cogswell ME, Elliott P, Wang CY, Rhodes DG, Pfeiffer CM, Loria CM 2013 Assessing U.S. sodium intake through dietary data and urine biomarkers. Adv Nutr 4:560-562.

2.              World Health Organization 2013 Follow-up to the Political Declaration of the High-Level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and control of Non-Communicable Diseases: Sixty-Sixth World Health Assembly (WHA66.10). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

3.              Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB 2012 Cholera. The Lancet 379:2466-2476.

4.              Webster JL, Dunford EK, Neal BC 2010 A systematic survey of the sodium contents of processed foods. Am J Clin Nutr 91:413-420.

5.              Ovesen L, Boeing H 2002 The use of biomarkers in multicentric studies with particular consideration of iodine, sodium, iron, folate and vitamin D. European journal of clinical nutrition 56 Suppl 2:S12-17.

6.              World Health Organization 2014 Guideline: Potassium intake for adults and children. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

7.              Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sodium Reduction Toolkit: A Global Opportunity to Reduce Population-Level Sodium Intake. Module: Biomarkers. (Last accessed on 28 July, 2018).

8.              John KA, Cogswell ME, Campbell NR, Nowson CA, Legetic B, Hennis AJ, Patel SM 2016 Accuracy and Usefulness of Select Methods for Assessing Complete Collection of 24-Hour Urine: A Systematic Review. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 18:456-467.

9.              Cox L, Guberg K, Young S, Nicholson S, Steer T, Prentice A, Page P 2018 Validation of the use of p-aminobenzoic acid to determine completeness of 24 h urine collections in surveys of diet and nutrition. European journal of clinical nutrition 72:1180-1182.

10.           Middleton DR, Watts MJ, Lark RM, Milne CJ, Polya DA 2016 Assessing urinary flow rate, creatinine, osmolality and other hydration adjustment methods for urinary biomonitoring using NHANES arsenic, iodine, lead and cadmium data. Environ Health 15:68.

11.           Cogswell ME, Maalouf J, Elliott P, Loria CM, Patel S, Bowman BA 2015 Use of Urine Biomarkers to Assess Sodium Intake: Challenges and Opportunities. Annu Rev Nutr 35:349-387.

12.           Jakobsen J, Pedersen AN, Ovesen L 2003 Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: effects of age and dosage scheduling. European journal of clinical nutrition 57:138-142.

13.           Public Health England 2014 National Diet and Nutrition Survey: assessment of dietary sodium. Adults (19 to 64 years) in England, 2014.

14.           McLean RM 2014 Measuring population sodium intake: a review of methods. Nutrients 6:4651-4662.

15.           Intersalt Cooperative Research Group 1988 Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. BMJ 297:319-328.

16.           Kawasaki T, Itoh K, Uezono K, Sasaki H 1993 A simple method for estimating 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion from second morning voiding urine specimen in adults. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology 20:7-14.

17.           Young DS 1997 Effects of preanalytical variables on clinical laboratory tests. 2nd ed. ed. Washington (D.C.) : AACC press.

18.           Pfeiffer CM, Hughes JP, Cogswell ME, Burt VL, Lacher DA, Lavoie DJ, Rabinowitz DJ, Johnson CL, Pirkle JL 2014 Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010. The Journal of nutrition 144:698-705.