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Useful links and references

Useful links on Vitamin A

Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) – Vitamin A Review

Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.

The following pages, guidelines and reports from the World Health Organization (WHO):


1.              Debelo H, Novotny J, Ferruzzi M 2017 Vitamin A. Adv Nutr 8:992-994.

2.              Bailey R, West K, Black R 2015 The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies. Ann Nutr Metab 66:22-33.

3.              WHO. 2009 Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005 WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

4.              Stevens G, Bennett J, Hennocq Q, Lu Y, De-Regil L, Rogers L, Danaei G, Li G, White R, Flaxman S, Oehrle S, Finucane M, Guerrero R, Bhutta Z, Then-Paulino A, Fawzi W, Black R, Ezzati M 2015 Trends and mortality effects of vitamin A deficiency in children in 138 low-income and middle-income countries between 1991 and 2013: a pooled analysis of population-based surveys. Lancet Global Health Sep 3:e528-536.

5.              Tanumihardjo SA, Russell RM, Stephensen CB, Gannon BM, Craft NE, Haskell MJ, Lietz G, Schulze K, Raiten DJ 2016 Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)-Vitamin A Review. The Journal of nutrition 146:1816S-1848S.

6.              Haskell M 2012 The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: B-carotene bioavailability and conversion-evidence in humans. Am J  Clin Nutr 96:1193S-1203S.

7.              Medicine. Io 2001 Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

8.              FAO/WHO. 2002 Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Report of joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. FAO, Rome, Bangkok, Thailand.

9.              Allen L, de Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell R 2006 Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. World Health Organization, Geneva.

10.           Talsma E, Pachon H. Biofortification of crops with minerals and vitamins.

11.           Arimond M, Zeilani M, Jungjohann S, Brown K, Ashorn P, Allen L, Dewey K 2015 Considerations in developing lipid-based nutrientsupplements for prevention of undernutrition:experience from the International Lipid-Based NutrientSupplements (iLiNS) Projec. Mat Child Nutr 11:31-61.

12.           WHO. 2011 Vitamin A supplementation for infants and children 6-59 months of age Guideline.

13.           Rodahl K 1949 Toxicity of Polar Bear Liver. Nature 164:530-531.

14.           Lietz G, Furr HC, Gannon BM, Green MH, Haskell M, Lopez-Teros V, Novotny JA, Palmer AC, Russell RM, Tanumihardjo SA, Van Loo-Bouwman CA 2016 Current Capabilities and Limitations of Stable Isotope Techniques and Applied Mathematical Equations in Determining Whole-Body Vitamin A Status. Food Nutr Bull 37:S87-S103.

15.           Labrique A, Palmer A, Healy K, Mehra S, Sauer T, West K 2015 A novel device for assessing ark adaptation in field settings. BMC Ophthalmology 15:74.

16.           Palmer A, Healy K, Barffou rM, Siamusantu W, Chileshe J, West K, Labrique A 2016 Provitamin A carotenoid-biofortified maize consumption increases pupillary responsiveness among Zambian children in a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr 146:2551-2558.

17.           WHO. 1996 Indicators for assessing vitamin A deficiency and their application in monitoring and evaluating intervention programmes. WHO/UNICEF, Geneva, Switzerland.

18.           Palmer A, West KJ, Dalmiya N, Schultink W 2012 The use and interpretation of serum retinol distributions in evaluating the public health impact of vitamin A programmes. Public Health Nutr 15:1201-1215.

19.           Larson L, Guo J, Williams A, Young M, Ismaily S, Addo O, Thurnham D, Tanumihardjo S, Suchdev P, Northrup-Clewes C 2018 Approaches to Assess Vitamin A Status in Settings of Inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) Project. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1100 10:1-11.

20.           de Pee S, Dary O 2002 Biochemical inicators of vitamin A deficiency:serum retinol and serum reinol binding protein. J Nutr 132:2895S-2901S.

21.           Sommer A, Davidson F 2002 Assessment and control of vitamin A deficiency: the Annecy Accords. J Nutr 132:2845S-2850S.

22.           Catignani G, Bieri J 1986 Simultaneous determination of retinol and a-tochopherol in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography. Methods Enzymol 123.

23.           Tanumihardjo S, Koellner P, Olson J 1990 The modified relative dose response (MRDR) assay as an indicator of vitamin A status in a population of well-nourished American children. Am J Clin Nutr 52:1064-1067.

24.           Engle-Stone R, Haskell MJ, Ndjebayi AO, Nankap M, Erhardt JG, Gimou MM, Brown KH 2011 Plasma retinol-binding protein predicts plasma retinol concentration in both infected and uninfected Cameroonian women and children. J Nutr 141:2233-2241.

25.           Erhardt J, Estes J, Pfeiffer C, Biesalski H, Craft N 2004 Combined Measurement of Ferritin, Soluble Transferrin Receptor, Retinol Binding Protein, and C-Reactive Protein by an inexpensive, Sensitive, and Simple Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Technique. J Nutr 134:3127-3132.

26.           Brindle E, Stevens D, Crudder C, Levin C, Garrett D, Lyman C, Boyle D 2014 A Multiplex Immunoassay Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Iron, Vitamin A and Inflammation Status Markers. PLoS ONE 9:e115164.

27.           Tanumihardjo SA 2014 Usefulness of vitamin A isotope methods for status assessment: from deficiency through excess. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 84 Suppl 1:16-24.

28.           Green M, Ford J, Oxley A, Green J, Park H, Berry P, Boddy A, Lietz G 2016 Plasma Retinol Kinetics and b-Carotene Bioefficacy Are Quantified by Model-Based Compartmental Analysis in Healthy Young Adults with Low Vitamin A Stores. J Nutr 146:2129-2136.

29.           Lopez-Teros V, Ford J, Green M, Tang G, Grusak M, Quihui-Cota L, Muzhingi T, Paz-Cassini M, astiazaran-Garcia H 2017 Use of a “super-child” approach to assess the vitamin A equivalence of moringa oleifera leaves, develop a compartmental model for vitamin A kinetics, and estimate vitamin A total body stores in young Mexican children. J Nutr 147:2356-2363.

30.           Green M 2014 Evaluation of the “Olson equation” an isotope dilution method for estimating vitamin A stores. Int J Nutr Res 84:9-15.

31.           Ford J, Green J, Green M 2018 A population-based (super-child) approach for predicting vitamin A total body stores and retinol kinetics in children is validated by the application of model-based compartmental analysis to theoretical data. Curr Dev Nutr 24.

32.           Oxley A, Berry P, Taylor G, J C, Hall M, Hesketh J, Lietz G, Boddy A 2014 An LC/MS/MS method for stable isotope dilution studies of b-carotene bioavailability, bioconversion, and vitamin A status in humans. J Lipid Res 55:319-328.

33.           Tanumihardjo S 2000 Vitamin A status assessment in rats with 13C4-retinyl acetate and gas chromatogrphy/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Nutr 130:2844-2849.

34.           Stoltzfus R, Underwood B 1995 Breastmilk vitamin A as an indicator of the vitamin A status of women and infants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 73:703-711.

35.           Engle-Stone R, Haskell M, Nankap M, Ndjebayi A, Brown K 2014 Breast Milk Retinol and Plasma Retinol-Binding Protein Concentrations Provide Similar Estimates of Vitamin A Deficiency Prevalence and Identify Similar Risk Groups among Women in Cameroon but Breast Milk Retinol Underestimates the Prevalence of Deficiency among Young Children. J Nutr 144:209-217.

36.           Turner T, BJ. Burri 2012 Rapid isocratic HPLC method and sample extraction procedures for measuring carotenoid, retinoid, and tocopherol concentrations in human blood and breast milk for intervention studies. Chromatographia 75:241-252.

37.           Turner T, Burri B, Jamil K, M. J 2013 The effects of daily consumption of beta-cryptoxanthin–rich tangerines and beta-carotene–rich sweet potatoes on vitamin A and carotenoid concentrations in plasma and breast milk of Bangladeshi women with low vitamin A status in a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr 98:1200-1208.

38.           Tanumihardjo S, Penniston K 2002 Simplified methodology to determine breast milk retinol concentrations. J of Lipid Research 43:350-355.

39.           Engle-Stone R, Haskell M, La Frano M, Ndjebayi A, KH. B 2014 Comparison of breast milk vitamin A concentration measured in fresh milk by a rapid field assay (the iCheck FLUORO) with standard measurement of stored milk by HPLC. Eur J Clin Nutr 68:938-940.

40.           Lucas A, Gibbs J, Lyster R 1978 Creamatocrit: simple clinical technique for estimating fat concentration and energy value of human milk. Brit Med J 22:1019-1020.

41.           Huang Y, Clements P, Gibson R 2015 Robust measurement of vitamin A status in plasma and blood dried on paper. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 102:31-36.

42.           Brindle E, Lillis L, Barney R, Bansil P, Lyman C, Boyle D 2019 Measurement of micronutrient deficiency associated biomarkers in dried blood spots using a multiplexed immunoarray. PLoS ONE 14:e0210212.

43.           Smith F, Goodman D 1976 Vitamin A transport in human vitamin A toxicity. N Engl J Med294:805-808.

44.           Sowell A, Huff D, Yeager P, Caudill S, Gunter E 1994 Retinol, alpha-tocopherol, leutine/zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and four retinyl esters in serum determined simultaneously be reversed phase HPLC with multiwavelength detection. Clin Chem 40:411-416.

45.           Jang JT, Green JB, Beard JL, Green MH 2000 Kinetic analysis shows that iron deficiency decreases liver vitamin A mobilization in rats. J Nutr 130:1291-1296.