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Quality control and references

Quality control material

QC material can be prepared from pooled serum or plasma samples or can be obtained from the following commercial sources:

  • Chromsystems (Gräfelfing, Germany)- Vitamin A/E serum controls
  • Bio Rad (Watford, UK) – Vitamin A/E control set
  • Recipe (Munich, German) – ClinChek Serum controls

Note All manufacturers also provide a full HPLC kit for the analysis of Vitamins A/E

Laboratory accreditation

For details on laboratory accreditation, validation or proficiency testing schemes, please see the OpeN-Global page on Laboratory accreditation. For example, the NEQAS scheme in the UK include vitamin E.

Technical assistance

For technical assistance and advice on sodium assessment, please contact OpeN-Global or write to
Nutritional Biomarker Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK. Email:

Useful links

National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements

WHO eLENA library: Vitamin E supplementation for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants

National Academies Press: DRIs for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids


1.         National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=14985. alpha-Tocopherol. (Last accessed on December 6, 2018).

2.         Traber MG 2007 Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms. Annu Rev Nutr 27:347-362.

3.         Traber MG, Manor D 2012 Vitamin E. Adv Nutr 3:330-331.

4.         Lee GY, Han SN 2018 The Role of Vitamin E in Immunity. Nutrients 10.

5.         US Institute of Medicine 2000 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

6.         Beck S, Wojdyla D, Say L, Betran AP, Merialdi M, Requejo JH, Rubens C, Menon R, Van Look PF 2010 The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 88:31-38.

7.         McBurney MI, Yu EA, Ciappio ED, Bird JK, Eggersdorfer M, Mehta S 2015 Suboptimal Serum α-Tocopherol Concentrations Observed among Younger Adults and Those Depending Exclusively upon Food Sources, NHANES 2003-20061-3. PloS one 10:e0135510-e0135510.

8.         Traber MG 2014 Vitamin E Inadequacy in Humans: Causes and Consequences. Advances in Nutrition 5:503-514.

9.         Greaves RF, Woollard GA, Hoad KE, Walmsley TA, Johnson LA, Briscoe S, Koetsier S, Harrower T, Gill JP 2014 Laboratory medicine best practice guideline: vitamins a, e and the carotenoids in blood. The Clinical biochemist Reviews 35:81-113.