When the second word war began, the UK had a massive shortage of nurses, which led to a surge in recruitment of an extra 30,000-70,000 to deal with air raid casualties. The country was also short of some 40,000 nurses before the current coronavirus outbreak. This is only counting vacancies, and is not a calculation of population-based demand.
Increasing the number of nurses today has been possible through the emergency COVID-19 legislation and the establishment of a temporary register by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Essentially, this has meant calling upon nursing reserves, replicating a strategy used in the war.
The war effort permanently changed the UK’s nursing provision for the better. If there is to be any parallel today, we need to plan what the next steps in nursing policy might be – to build on the best of what the pandemic has brought.
The outcomes of the 1940s
During WWII, a Control of Engagement Order was used to help deploy nurses and trainees aged 18-40 to areas of need. It was supported by a Civil Nursing Reserve, made up of women who weren’t nurses but who had previous training and experience together with untrained volunteers, known as nursing auxiliaries.
An important discovery from surveys at the time was the extent to which the problems of nursing supply were not just of quantity and quality, but also of distribution. The Ministry of Health learned that if it was to direct nurses to hospitals where they were needed, it was going to have to rationalise payments for nurses and those organised through the Civil Nursing Reserve. This led to standardised rates that were in excess of those previously offered by hospitals.
The financial implications of these deepened the government’s involvement in sustaining the running costs of the hospital service. This increased commitment and added momentum to establishing the NHS.
Wars and pandemics reveal the fault lines in our society. As with the first world war, the demands made on citizens during WWII prompted consideration of the kind of society that should be constructed afterwards. Many of the emergency arrangements became permanent fixtures in the postwar welfare state.
How to improve nursing today
The UK started the pandemic with no reserve capacity, but have rapidly tried to create some headroom via the temporary register. This has been achieved by returning 20,000 nurses from recent retirement. The gap has also been plugged by offering clinical placements to second- and third-year student nurses and midwives. Just under 20,000 students were deployed, Higher Education England has said.
Given the shortage before the pandemic, it is worth considering how to incentivise those who have volunteered their services to continue afterwards. Relying on appeals to patriotism will not wash.