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Maritime Trade


Educating about the risks in maritime trade implementation

The Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS) is carrying out research, outreach and capacity building activities to help the public and private sector improve how they implement maritime trade and understand the risks in this area.

Many of the sanctions applied to North Korea since its first nuclear test in 2006 apply to merchant shipping, in attempts to prevent North Korea from importing and exporting goods in breach of sanctions.

CSSS research has shown that it is possible and practicable to use open source resources to detect and reduce exposure to sanctions evasion. The Centre's research and training activities have helped flag states, port states, and practitioners across the industry improve their practices.

The recent growth in ship-to-ship transfers by North Korea is undermining United Nations sanctions, and setting new challenges for the enforcement community. In Iran, the unilateral US measures have global implications, as public and private sector alike attempt to manage the risks posed by the reappearance of Iranian ships and shipping companies on US designation lists.

CSSS collaborates with non-governmental organisations to engage with flag registries, flag states, public and private sector stakeholders, maritime data service providers and United Nations Member States to identify and analyse challenges to implementation, whether through sophisticated sanctions evasion techniques or systemic and regulatory vulnerabilities. 


Country profile: Democratic People's Republic of Korea

The Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS) is carrying out research on the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) to understand the qualitative and quantitative impacts of economic sanctions on the North Korean economy and on Pyongyang's foreign and domestic policy choices.

Map North and South Korea

Explore Strategic Trade and Proliferation Finance

Proliferation Finance

Proliferation Finance

Training governments and private sector about financial sanctions for weapons of mass destruction



Building effective sanction regimes against nuclear proliferation

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