Biology is hierarchical: The genome specifies how to make RNA transcripts which are translated to make proteins; proteins are the machines that compose and build cells; cells together form organs which make up a whole organism. In theory, a complete genome contains all the information to specify a model of a complete organism, provided the rules to build each layer of the hierarchy are understood. The rules of translation — how 4 letters of DNA encode the 20 types of amino acids that make up proteins — both linear molecules — were decoded by 1966. However, the sequence of a protein encodes how it spontaneously folds up in 3D, with the resulting shape determining its function. Until the CASP14 findings (see below), we hadn’t been able to decode the rules of this folding process — at least not well enough to infer the next layer of the biological system systematically, the complete set of protein structures. At this level, the genome has remained the equivalent of an encrypted disk drive without the decryption key.