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Research & impact
Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a method of scoring the extent to which patient’s individual goals are achieved in the course of intervention. In effect, each patient has their own outcome measure but this is scored in a standardised way as to allow statistical analysis. Below is the further information of GAS.
On this page, you will be able to find the development and application of the tool.
The original Goal attainment scaling was developed by Kiresuk and Sherman specifically for identifying patient specific goals in a mental health care setting.
The GAS-light was developed following feedback from clinicians to address the following criticisms of the original version:
Data from a series of studies including the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS) programme provided a rich database of over 1700 goal statements set in the context of clinical management of upper limb spasticity.
Goals analysis revealed six main goal areas. Further analysis of the SMART goal statements within each area was used to formulate the sub-categories and recommended goal parameters.
Further development for identification of commonly selected goals in the management of lower limb spasticity with the incorporation of botulinum toxin was completed.
This involved a two-stage process:
Goal categories and domains were identified.
The goal categories were further mapped on to the World Health Organisation International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF).
Goal Attainment Scaling – a practical guide
For further information, please email the UK ROC team LNWHfirstname.lastname@example.org
Self-learning training slides are also available GAS made easy – how to do GAS in 5 easy steps.
For those who want further training in the use of the GAS, sessions are provided annually. For further information on the date of the next course, please email the UK ROC team LNWHemail@example.com.
Find out more additional references for GAS on PURE.
“GAS without Tears” – slides from a workshop on goal setting delivered at the Australian Society for the Study of Brain Injury (ASSBI) Perth, Western Australia, 2022.
The simplified, semi-structured approach to Goal Attainment scaling for use in clinical settings has assisted in facilitating further analysis of goals for specific target groups both in the UK and internationally.
Turner-Stokes L, Rose H, Lakra C, Williams H, Ashford SA, Siegert RJ. Goal-setting and attainment in prolonged disorders of consciousness - development of a structured approach. Brain Inj. 2020;34(1):78-88. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2019.1682190.
Turner-Stokes L, Fheodoroff K, Jacinto J, Maisonobe P. Results from the Upper Limb International Spasticity Study-II (ULISII):a large, international, prospective cohort study investigating practice and goal attainment following treatment with botulinum toxin A in real-life clinical management. BMJ Open. 2013; 3(6):e002771. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002771.
Turner-Stokes L, Fheodoroff K, Jacinto J, Maisonobe P, Zakine B. Upper limb international spasticity study: rationale and protocol for a large, international, multicentre prospective cohort study investigating management and goal attainment following treatment with botulinum toxin A in real-life clinical practice. BMJ Open. 2013 Mar 18;3(3):e002230. doi: 10.1136.
Turner-Stokes L, Jacinto J, Fheodoroff K, Brashear A, Maisonobe P, Lysandropoulos A, Ashford S. Longitudinal goal attainment with integrated upper limb spasticity management including repeat injections of botulinum toxin A: Findings from the prospective, observational Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS-III) cohort study. Journal Rehabilitation Medicine. 2021;53(2) doi: 10.2340/16501977-2801.
Turner-Stokes L, Jacinto J, Fheodoroff K, Brashear A, Maisonobe P, Lysandropoulos A, Ashford S; Upper Limb International Spasticity-III (ULIS-III) study group. Assessing the effectiveness of upper-limb spasticity management using a structured approach to goal-setting and outcome measurement: First cycle results from the ULIS-III Study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2021; 53(1). doi: 10.2340/16501977-2770.
Turner-Stokes L, Baguley IJ, De Graaff S, Katrak P, Davies L, McCrory P, Hughes A. Goal attainment scaling in the evaluation of treatment of upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin: a secondary analysis from a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2010 (1):81-9. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0474.
Turner-Stokes L, Williams H. Goal attainment scaling: a direct comparison of alternative rating methods. Clin Rehabil. 2010 Jan;24(1):66-73. doi: 10.1177/0269215509343846. Epub 2009 Dec 21. PMID: 20026573.
The original GAS is widely used in many settings in the UK and Internationally.
The GAS-light, GAS-eous and GAS-leg are used widely in busy neurorehabilitation settings in the UK and internationally, particularly in Australia, Portugal, France and Germany.
For further information or copies of GAS or UK ROC Software and User-guide, please contact:
+44 020 8869 5161
Find out about how to use the Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) tool
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