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Questionnaires and tools


ArmA - The Arm Activity Measure

The ArmA is a measure of difficulty in passive and active function for application following focal therapy intervention and in particular for spasticity interventions, both physical and with botulinum toxin injection. The active and passive sub-scales of the tool are treated as separate constructs, but nevertheless have a relationship and are both important in the achievement of clinically relevant goals. The ArmA is likely to have utility in practice for evaluation of spasticity intervention (often for passive function) and possibly other focal interventions such as task practice training for active function improvement.


Ashford S, Alexandrescu R & Siegert RJ., The Arm Activity measure (ArmA) passive function sub-scale conjoint measurement and ordinal scaling, Clinical Rehabilitation 2016;30, 714-718

Ashford S, Siegert RJ & Alexandrescu R., Rasch measurement: The Arm Activity Measure (ArmA) passive function sub-scaleDisability and Rehabilitation 2015 

Ashford S, Slade M, Nair A, Turner-Stokes L & Ashford S.,  Arm Activity measure (ArmA) application for recording functional gain following focal spasticity treatment, International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2015; 21(1), 10-17


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